Udvalget for Udlændinge- og Integrationspolitik 2010-11 (1. samling)
UUI Alm.del Bilag 108
The Mandaean Associations Union19 Ketch Rd.Morristown, NJ 07960 ,USATel: +1 973 865 1340Fax: +1973 292 3906suhaib.nashi@gmail.comwww.mandaeanunion.org
The Mandaean Associations Union
Mandaean Human RightsGroup
Mandaean Human Rights Annual Report
November 2009
Disclaimer:This report is the property of the Mandaean Associations Union (MAU). Any media use of allor part of this report should be referred to the owner by name. Any other use must be approved by theMAU.
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The Mandaean Human Rights Group(MHRG) is a self organized group dedicated for the helpand protection of fellow Mandaeans in Iraq and Iran given the situation in those two countries.The Human Rights Group watches, investigates and exposes human rights violations againstMandaeans. We have volunteers in the United States, Canada, Australia, United Kingdom,Europe and Iraq. Our model in our work is the United Nation's Human Rights Declaration of1948. The MHRG is a non profit organization registered at Companies House, UK 6271157. Itis a member of the Mandaean Associations Union.
We gratefully acknowledge the dedicated help and advice of many organizations, without which thiswork would not have been completed. Numbered among them for this edition are: Mandaean Associations Union.The Spiritual Mandaean Council – Baghdad, IraqThe Mandaean General Assembly – Baghdad, IraqThe Mandaean Human Rights Association- Baghdad, IraqThe Mandaean Society in Jordan.The Mandaean Society in Syria.The Mandaean Society in AustraliaThe Scientific Mandaean Society in Iran
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Content:Demography----------------------------------------------------------------------------P 4Short History of the Sabian Mandaeans --------------------------------------------P 4Sabian Mandaeans after the fall of Saddam Hussain’s regime------------------P 6Threat of Extinction -------------------------------------------------------------------P 13The Mandaean refugees in the middle Countries, Syria and Jordan------------P 14Mandaean Returnees------------------------------------------------------------------P 16What is the solution?------------------------------------------------------------------P 18For the Mandaean refugees ----------------------------------------------------------P 19Conclusion -----------------------------------------------------------------------------P 23
Appendix:Examples of Atrocities against the Sabian Mandaeans since 2003--------------P 24List of the murdered Sabian Mandaeans---------------------------------------------P 24List of the kidnapped Sabian Mandaeans--------------------------------------------P 29Threats and Assaults--------------------------------------------------------------------P 35Rape---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------P 41Conversion to Islam by Force---------------------------------------------------------P 42Forced displacement from Al-Ramady Area to Syria------------------------------P 43Forced displacement from Al-Ramady Area to Jordan----------------------------P 43Other incidents -------------------------------------------------------------------------P 44Unconfirmed Atrocities----------------------------------------------------------------P 46Photo evidence of some of the victims-----------------------------------------------P 47
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The Sabian-Mandaeanreligion is one of the oldest monotheistic religions in the Middle East. Itis independent of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. It follows the teachings of John the Baptist;baptism being its central ritual. Like most religions it emphasizes marriage, family, and peacefulcoexistence with other groups. Mandaeans (Sabians or Sub’ba, in spoken Arabic) are the peoplewho believe in this religion. One is born a Mandaean; the group accepts no converts. Well beforethe Islamic era and from early Christianity, Mandaeans have lived in Southern Iraq and SouthernIran. In Iraq, after WWI, they migrated to large cities such as Basra and Baghdad. Like Hebrewsand Copts, Mandaeans are both a religious and ethnic minority they are part of an endogenousAramaic people. The word Mandaean refers to their distinct Aramaic language, which is stillspoken by Iranian Mandaeans. In Iraq on the other hand, the Mandaean language survives onlyin liturgy.
DemographyAlthough it is difficult to estimate, the Mandaeans are around sixty thousands at the present time.Less than 5,000 Sabaean-Mandaeans remain in Iraq. Their decreased number is due to continuedpersecution and forced mass conversions as well as relocation and assimilation. Currently, theylive in large cities such as Baghdad, Umara and Basra with a few remain in other Iraqi cities likeNasiriya and southern Iranian cities like Ahwaz. During the past decade, and especially the pastfive years, thousands have fled Iraq and Iran, choosing self-exile and immigration over death andpersecution. There are about 15,000 Mandaean in different parts of Europe, 2000 in the UnitedStates, 1200 in Canada and about 5000 in Australia. There is also a large refugee population invarious other countries: 1250 families in Syria, 49 families in Jordan and a smaller number inYemen, Thailand, Egypt, Lebanon, and Libya.More than 85% of the Iraqi Mandaean community has been displaced outside Iraq. TheMandaean community in Iraq has dwindled from more than 50 thousand in the early 1990s tobetween 3.5-4 thousands today. Most have escaped to Syria and Jordon, and others have also fledto other countries. Some are very desperate to reach western democracies and fell victim tohuman trafficking, spent all their savings and endured more difficulties in other countries.
Short History of the Sabian MandaeansIt is difficult to chart the origins and history of the Mandaean people because their literature doesnot deal with these topics. Currently only one Mandaean text has emerged which refers, but in avery confused manner, to their history. It is the “Diwan of the great Revelation, called ‘InnerHaran’” or Haran Gawaita.In Haran Gawaita there is a description of the Nasoraeans (religious men in Mandaean language)escaping from persecution and staying in the “Median Hills” under the rule of King Ardban.King Ardban has been identified with the Parthian King Artaban III, IV or V. This descriptionshows how the Mandaean community, or part of it, penetrated into the Iranian territory of thattime, that is during the period of the later Parthian kings, in the first or second century A. D. Thissame text describes how a Mandaean community was established in Mesopotamia (AncientIraq), and discusses its further history under the Sassanian rulers.
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The emigration of the early Mandaean community from the Jordan valley in Palestine intoeastern territories was brought about because of conflicts with the locals probably have takenplace during the second century A.D. at the latest, because several Mesopotamian and Parthianelements presuppose a fairly lengthy stay in these regions. The emigrants went first to Haran,and the Median hills, and then entered the southern provinces of Mesopotamia.Haran Gawaita attests to the foundation of a community in Baghdad, i.e. in Mesopotamia, andthe appointment of Mandaean governors in this region. In contrast to the Parthian rulers, underwhom the Mandaeans obviously prospered, relations with the Sassanians were bad. The samescroll refers to considerable reduction in the number of the Mandaean Mandies (WorshipHouses) at that time. It is also clear from the inscription of the Zoroastrian high priest, Kartar,that those practicing non-Iranian religions, including Mandaeans, were persecuted during thereign of King ShahpurI.With the rise of Islam there came renewed oppression. In spite of mentioning the Sabians as“Peopleof the Book”in the Qur’an, Mandaeans were hardly ever tolerated. Thus, the afflictedcommunity retired more and more into the inaccessible marshes of southern Iraq and the riverdistricts of Khuzestan, where Mandaeans are found until now.During this journey in history, Mandaeans were faced with several massacres and genocideattempts. Examples of which are in:1. The 14thcentury in Umara, Iraq by the hands of The Sultan Muhsin Ben Mahdi and hisson Faiadh the ruler of Shushter. Thousands of Mandaeans were killed1.2. The massacre of 1782 in South Iran and east Iraq when the Muslim rulers wanted theMandaean books and the Mandaeans refused to give it in fear of destruction. Leaders ofthe community where tortured and killed and the rest had to escape2.3. The massacres of Muhamra 18373.4. The massacre of Suk Al-Shiuk 18394.5. The Massacre of 1870 in Shushter By the hands Nassir Al-Deen Shah, the ruler of Iran5.2
In the beginning of the twentieth century, the Mandaeans returned to the large cities (Baghdadand Basra), and found opportunities for education and social improvement.After the First World War and with the rise of Turkish nationalism, Arab nationalism tookprecedent over religion and the Arab Muslims fought against the Muslim Ottoman Empire. Anew phase of persecution appeared where the ethnic identity of minorities in the Arabic Islamicrule had to dissolve in the pan Arab chauvinistic identity. This included the Mandaeans,Christians, Kurds and all other ethnicities. The Mandaeans lost their language (MandaeanAramaic), distinctive dress and heritage to Arabic culture. This “Arabization” process, especiallyin 1950 to 1960’s, adversely affected their religion6. Mandaeans were forced to deny certainMandaean mandates. For instance as Mandaean children attended schools they are required tocut their hair and beards, which is in direct violation to Mandaean rules. Since the sons of priestsare barred from the priesthood if they cut their hair or beards, this forced act has restricted thepool of acceptable applicants. In addition they were drafted by force in the armed forces againagainst their religious mandate which prohibit carrying guns7.67
Mandaeans of Iraq and Iran by Lady Drowere, E. S., P 56 - 57Jean de Morgan (mission scientifique en Perse ) volume 53Glimpses of Life: Yahia Bihram Mandaean Priest by Jorunn J. Buckley- (History of Religions 1999 pgs 32 – 49)4ibid5Stories from a life of Ameer by Mahmooh Hamidi (Persian) P 1616Drower, E. S., The Thousand and Twelve Questions (Alf Trisar Suialia), edited in transliteration and translation by E. S.Drower(Akademie Verlag Berlin: 1960 (page 1 – 2)7Drower, E. S., The Thousand and Twelve Questions (Alf Trisar Suialia), edited in transliteration and translation by E. S.Drower (Akademie Verlag Berlin: 1960 (page 2))
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During the Baath and Saddam era the Mandaeans were under extreme pressure. The dictatorshipaffected the Iraqi society over the last several decades in a brutal way. This dictatorship held aniron grip over all Iraqis and stained the recent history with terror and blood of the innocentpeople. The Mandaeans took their share of misery, pain and all kinds of suffering. Severalhundred Mandaeans were murdered by authorities during Saddam rule, for trying to express theirthoughts in public. Hundreds of their young men and women were killed, condemned to horribletortures, or simply vanished. Hundreds more were killed during the Iraq-Iran war, under theforced drafting rules. This has made substantial portion of young male population. They wereforced to go against their religious doctrine of not carrying weapons and never shedding blood,even in self-defence8.T
The concept of freedom in the Baath regime, especially religious freedom, was directlycorrelated with the personal favour demanded of Saddam Hussein and the regime9TheMandaeans were not an exception; they suffered politically, economically, socially, andreligiously from persecution. Moreover, the Mandaeans have endured severe discrimination inemployment, education, the legal system, and were subjected to forced military service andsocial shunning. This forced over 15,000 of the Mandaeans to flee from Iraq during that periodwhich represents a major percentage of the total numbers of the Mandaeans in Iraq, making themthe most affected minority. Also, the interference of authorities in religious matters anddecisions, led lots of the Mandaean priests to leave Iraq.TP
During the last decade and before the fall of Saddam regime, there was a surge in Islamicfundamentalist ideology both in the Sunni and Shia’a school of thoughts resulting from manyfactors out of the scope of this report. These extreme Islamic views carry, among other things, anextreme view of how Muslims should deal with other religions like Christianity, Judaism andMandaeanism. Rejection and forced conversion to Islam are the only solutions these ideologieswould expect. The extreme Moslems have been using all possible means including money,threats, kidnapping, intimidation and even murdering, in order to force other religious minoritymembers such as Mandaeans to convert to Islam. These tactics were successful with a lot ofMandaean families in areas like Faluja, Ramadi and some areas in Baghdad. The use of threats,intimidation, brain washing of children, and kidnapping of girls forced a lot of Mandaeanfamilies to surrender completely and accept their fate. During that period many Mandaeans werekilled for their faith only10.
Sabian Mandaeans after the fall of Saddam Hussein’s regimeMandaeans, like all Iraqi people,werelooking forward for a new era after the fall of Saddamregime. They were looking for a better treatment by authorities based on citizenship and equality,but unfortunately this did not materialise. War lords and militia, controlled the streets for a longtime. Religion based gangs and criminals, held the laws in their hands and common criminalswere unleashed. The government failed to secure safety and security due to several reasons suchas the intrinsic make up of the sectarian based sharing of power which left the minorities andespecially the Mandaeans with no protection. The Mandaeans are pacifists who have no clansystem of protection and have no enclave to run to in times of dander. Their only self-defencemeans are argument, pay money or escape. All the atrocities that the Mandaeans have passedthrough since 2003 are documented in our previous reports1112131415.
List of names can be obtained from the Mandaean Human Rights Group directly (secretary@mandaeanunion.org)International Religious freedom report 2003 Released by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and labor10A comprehensive report about that period has been issued by the Mandaean Human Rights Group and can be requesteddirectly from the MHRG . also look at : http://mandaeanunion.org/HMRG/EN_HMRG_002.htm11http://mandaeanunion.org/HMRG/Mandaean_Human_Rights_Annual_report_March%20_2008.pdf12http://mandaeanunion.org/HMRG/Sabian_Mandaeans_in%20Iraq_Face_Annihilation_2007_MHRG_report.pdf13http://mandaeanunion.org/HMRG/EN_HMRG_011.html14http://mandaeanunion.org/HMRG/HR_report_2005.pdf15http://mandaeanunion.org/HMRG/EN_HMRG_001.htm
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In March 2009, the Amnesty International released a report about women in Iraq, in which (onpage 2) it states that “One morning, four armed masked men forced their way into a family homein Baghdad. The children and their father were beaten and shackled. Their pregnant mother wasforced into another room, kicked in the abdomen, burnt with a cigarette and raped. The rapistsaid that he wanted to make her miscarry because of her religion. The mother lost consciousnessduring the assault and woke up in hospital to discover that her pregnancy had been terminateddue to the injuries caused by the attack. The family, members of the minority Sabean-Mandaeancommunity, subsequently fled the country16”.This was one of many cases where the identity of the victims was hidden. Many other cases werenot reported due to fear and on specific request of the families.On July 3 2008, a press release from The Society for Threatened Peoples In Iraq (GfBV based inGermany) mentioned that, “The chain of infringements on members of the Mandaean religiouscommunity is unbroken. The Society for Threatened Peoples in Iraq (GfBV) learned onThursday that in the south of the country a Mandaean has once again been the victim ofabduction. The criminals demand from the family of the 18-year old Abraham Hakim Nuri Al-Dihesi a ransom of 150,000 US dollars17”.In the same press release, the GfBV referred to another incident which took place on March 262008 in the city of Kute in Iraq where a missile attack took place on a house inhabited by twoMandaean families causing the destruction of the house and the death of nine women andchildren, as well as one young man. Another young man was seriously injured. Immediately afterthe attack the house was looted of its contents by armed men. Moreover the death certificates ofthe deceased were inconsistent and showed different causes of death. However, the house nextdoor was not damaged by effect of the missile18. This case was reported against an unknown andthe investigation was closed by the Interior Ministry of Iraq.The details of this case was reported according to the model questionnaire provided by theSpecial Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief at the Office of the High Commissioner forHuman Rights (OHCHR), United Nations at Geneva, according to resolution 6/37 of December14 2007, the Human Rights Council.It is worth to mention that most of the cases of killing were followed by threats to the bereavedfamilies not to report to the police. These threats were delivered by the tribes or clans of thecriminals in which they also threaten them to leave their homes or else be killed.The USCIRF (United States Commission on International Religious Freedom ) met with familymembers of the deceased in Syria in May 2008, and was told, before the attack.......... hadreceived numerous threats and warnings from extremists because of their religion (page 46 ofAnnual Report May 2009)19.The UNHCR April 2009 Report on the UNHCR Eligibility Guidelines for assessing theInternational Protection Needs of Iraqi Asylum-Seekers, mentions that on September 8 2008, agroup of men armed with silencer guns shot three Mandaeans in their family jewellery storelocated in a busy market in Al-Sha'ab district of Baghdad. Two brothers and an eight-year oldboy were killed in this crime with multiple shots to their heads and chests. In addition thevictims’ store was looted20.
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In a press release on August 11 2009, it is mentioned that based on the MHRG - On ThursdayAugust 6 2009, another Mandaean goldsmith (Mr. Weam Abdul-Nabi Lazim) was massacred bygunmen in his jewellery shop in Iskan district in Baghdad, Iraq. The witnessed killing whichhappened in midmorning, was professionally executed using pistols with silencers and took placein a closed pedestrian busy shopping centre with security controlled entrances and exits. Thesame way was used few months ago when they killed three goldsmiths in Tobchi area, Baghdadand few weeks before that, the killing of three goldsmiths with their 8 year old son in Shaabarea, Baghdad21.On September 2 2009, Abdul Wahid Al-Bender and his family, (while at their house in Baghdad-Aljedida city), were attacked by armed men resulting in the killing of this elderly gentleman andthe injuries of his wife .When his sons tried to defend themselves, they were arrested by theauthorities. Not even that, the clans of the killers are now threatening to kill all the family. This“clan” action also stopped other Mandaeans from reporting a lot of atrocities in fear of revenge22.Another heinous crime against the Mandaeans of Iraq was committed on Saturday September 192009. This time it was in Basra, Iraq. Two Young goldsmiths, Mr. Farqad Faiq Authman and Mr.Muhand Qasim Abdul-Razzaq, both in their twenties, were massacred by four unmasked gunmen using silenced guns and knives. After several bullets in their heads they were knifed downand left to die in their shops. The gunmen looted the shops and escaped. This happened in theearly-morning hours in a crowded market and no one stood up to help23.In a case of Mrs. Ensam Mubark Mehalhal when 10 years son, Saeed M. Shadood, waskidnapped for the first time on March 19 2009, she immediately went to the police. She was toldto wait three days before coming back as it is still too early. The kidnappers called her a fewhours later and told her that if she contacts the police again they will kill her son (theyimmediately knew that the police was contacted). Relatives had to borrow and pay the ransom of30,000 US dollars to release the child after being beaten, tortured and sexually assaulted. Amonth later on June 5 2009, both the mother and her son were kidnapped again for two weeks.Both were beaten, tortured, their bodies were cut with razors, and they were sexually assaulted,with continuous insults for being kaffir (infidel) and dirty. Relatives paid a ransom of 40,000 USdollars to release them. The incident was reported to the Iraqi police, US FBI, State Departmentand the US Embassy in Baghdad as her brother in law is an American Mandaean citizen and wasinvolved in the demands to pay the ransom which he refused to pay.It is noticed that the killing incidences are taking semi-periodical sequence and there isproportional increase in the number of kidnappings which entail various torture methods used onthe victims. Many kidnapping especially those ended by the release of kidnapped for ransomwent unreported for various reasons not least because the kidnappers threaten them to keep quite.In our attached atrocities report for March 2008 till September 2009 the MHRG investigated 22murders of Mandaeans, 13 kidnappings with severe assaults, torture and humiliation with ransompaid, and 29 attacks. Attempted murders by weapons which left many bullet wounds that resultedin hospitalization. Mortar attacks, house bombings, threatening letters, arson attacks againstelderly people, threat of forced conversion, and paying religious tax (Jizya in Islamic wording). Italso included reports of atrocities that have not been reported by families during previousperiods. The appendix also shows the numbers of Mandaeans killed, kidnapped, or attackedsince 2003.Several religious clergy have been assassinated. Al-Halali (a religious rank) Raad Mutar Falihwas machine gunned at his house in Sewaira, in front of his family members. Al-Halali Talib
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Salman Arabi in the Ur section of Baghdad was killed at his doorstep in front all his family andneighbours.Some of the Mandaean treasures like the Holly Ginza written on lead plates more than athousand years old were looted, melted and some were sold in the international markets forantiques. It is the Mandaean identity and culture that is specifically targeted by these terrorists,not just the individuals.Many insurgencies involving a number of communities and organizations are struggling forpower inside Iraq at the moment. The conflicts have become internalized between Iraqis as thepolarization of sectarian and ethnic identities reached ever deeper into Iraqi society and hascaused the breakdown of social cohesion. This fact was recognised in a Chatham House Reportin May 2007, titled “AcceptingRealities in Iraq”and still holds true)2425.There were claims about an improvement in security in Iraq. However this is yet to be seen andfelt by our community in Iraq. The reality on the ground gives a completely different picture.Our sources identified increase atrocities per capita of Mandaean across Iraq which makes thereturn of those who fled the country much more difficult.In June 2009, a report from Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq to the congress, states (onpage vii) that, “To institutionalize its sovereignty and stability, the GOI (Government of Iraq)must build its legitimacy through the provision of basic services and improved security for theIraqi people, as well as the continued resolution of political, ethnic, and sectarian divisions” .Also, (on page viii), the same report mentions that, “However, in spite of the continued progress,these gains remain uneven throughout the country, and additional progress is required to producesustainable stability. Iraq remains fragile, primarily because the underlying sources of instabilityhave yet to be resolved, and the security progress in some areas remains reversible26”.In the October report from the Institute of War and Peace ,Jane Sentinel stated “The newpattern of crime in Iraq has seen the emergence of a broadening criminal class. In addition toreleased criminals and former security personnel, high unemployment and inflation combine tocreate an ideal environment for corruption and the dangerous recourse to employment bycriminal groups27”.The Home Office - UK Border Agency report, released on July 10 2009,Country of OriginInformation Report IRAQ(on page 60 / 9.05 referring to the USSD report for 2008), it ismentioned that, “During the year kidnappings and disappearances remained a severe problem;many individuals disappeared and incidents of child kidnapping increased in the latter half of theyear.......Police believed that the great majority of cases were not reported”. The author alsomentions that “kidnappings were often conducted for ransom, and that religious minorities andpoliticians were often the target of kidnappings....few kidnappings by members of the securityforces staff were reported28”.The Institute for War and Peace Reporting (IWPR) of March 27 2008 commented that, “Basrahad become a hotbed for gangs and outlaws who were committing crimes against people likewomen and professors29”.The Amnesty International report of 2009 for Iraq, published in 2009, mentioned that, “thosetargeted for kidnapping or killing have included members of religious and ethnic minorities such
http://www.chathamhouse.org.uk/news/view/-/id/373/http://www.refugeecouncil.org.au/docs/resources/submissions/2008-09_intakesub.pdf (P 81)http://www.defenselink.mil/pubs/pdfs/9010_Report_to_CongressJul09.pdfwww.iwpr.net/?apc_state=henpicr&s=i&o=2008http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/publisher,UKHO,COUNTRYREP,IRQ,4a5dd1ff2,0.htmlwww.iwpr.net/?apc-state=henpicr&s=i&o=2008
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as Christians and Palestinians”. The report also mentions women, human rights defenders,judges, medical doctors and other professionals were targeted by armed groups30.It is a fact that the dominant political movements and parties are dominated by religious ideologyof different level of beliefs but, according to the Hudson Institute, it was noticed that, “alljihadists orthodoxies hold the core animating belief of absolute intolerance for the religious“other,” that is other religious and faith groups, as well as other Muslims, whether members ofother Muslim groups or individual Muslims who dissent from intolerant orthodoxies31”.The USCIRF (United States Commission on International Religious Freedom) states in theAnnual report of May 2009 (page 48)32that, “Despite the decline in violence in the country,religiously-motivated insurgent and extremist attacks continued to occur in 2008 and 2009”.Also (on page 51), the report also states that, “Non-Muslim religious minorities particularlyChristians, were among the first to flee Iraq in response to bombings of churches, kidnappingsand killings of religious leaders, and targeted violence against them because of their religion.During Commission trips to the region in 2007 and 2008, Christian, Mandaean, and Yazidirefugees and IDPs provided accounts of violent attacks, kidnapping, rape, murder, torture, forcedconversion, and the destruction or seizure of property, particularly businesses such as liquorstores or hair salons deemed un-Islamic. These individuals told the Commission that they weretargeted because they do not conform to orthodox Islamic practices and/or because, as non-Muslims, they perceived to be working for the U.S led coalition forces. They also reported beingforced to pay a protection tax. Many reported fleeing their homes in fear after receiving threats to“convert,leave, or die”.In addition, they told of their places of worship being bombed andforced to close and their religious leaders being kidnapped and/or killed33”.The continuation of the plight of the Mandaeans in 2008/2009 inside Iraq and the refugees in theneighbouring countries, together with the asylum seekers in countries of refuge, attracted a lot ofconcern from many governmental institutes and NGO's. Some of the reports are quite alarming.UNHCR guidelines of April 2009 (on page 177 / 306) stated that, “The situation of theremaining 3,500-5,000 Sabaean-Mandaeans in Iraq remains of serious concern as they continueto be singled out by Sunni and Shia’a extremists as well as criminals on the basis of theirreligion, profession and perceived wealth. In various religious edicts published on the internet,they have been denounced as “non-believers” who should be exterminated. The fact thatMandaeans generally have no tribal networks and live scattered in small groups, further increasestheir vulnerability. In addition, non-violence is a basic tenet of their religion34”.The Home Office- UK Report of July 2009, referred to the Sabaean-Mandaeans as per the MRG(Minority Rights Group) report issued in 2008 (on page 137 / 21.49) where it states that, “sincethe US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003, Mandaeans have been the specific targets of violence.Mandaean women and children have been kidnapped and forcibly converted to Islam by rape,circumcision, physical beatings and even burning by bonfire. The community has suffered thelooting and destruction of their houses and businesses...35”.In June 2008, United Nation Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI), Human Rights Report (page17, point 55) states that, “UNAMI continued to receive reports of attacks against minority groupsbeing conducted with total impunity36”.
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In addition, the Commission Chairwoman of United States Commission on InternationalReligious Freedom (USCIRF), Felice Gaerhe, said that, “The lack of effective [Iraqi]government action to protect those communities from abuses has established Iraq among themost dangerous places on Earth for religious minorities”. The bipartisan commissionrecommended that Iraq be designated a “country of particular concern” as a consequence of whatit called the Iraqi Government's tolerance of severe abuses of religious freedom out of a lack ofcapacity rather than wilful indifference37”.The USCIRF annual report issued in May 2009 states that, “The Commission recommended thatthe U.S. Department of State should designate Iraq as a “country of particular concern” or CPC,based on the ongoing, severe abuses of religious freedom in the country and the government’stoleration of these abuses, particularly against Iraq’s smallest and most vulnerable religiousminorities”. It also stated that, “The religious freedom situation in Iraq remains grave,particularly for the smallest, most vulnerable religious minorities which include Chaldo Assyrianand other Christians, Sabaean-Mandaeans and Yazidis. In addition to lacking security, thesesmall minorities are legally, politically, and economically marginalized and they allege that theircommunities are discriminated against in the provision of essential government services andreconstruction and development aid, (page 43)38. The Mandaean and Yazidi communities areparticularly vulnerable to annihilation because a person must be born into these religions, notconvert or marry into them, and they do not proselytize or seek new adherents, (page 44)39”.Women and girls in Iraq also have suffered religiously-motivated violence and abuses, includingkillings, abductions, forced conversions, restrictions on movement, forced marriages, andreportedly other violence including rapes. Women considered to have violated Islamic teachingsand other politically active females have been targeted by Sunni and Shia’a extremists alike,(page 49)40.Since Mandaeans are pacifists and conscientious objectors by doctrine, they cannot defendthemselves from this violence by carrying arms. The UNHCR guidance note, October 2005,noted, “Unlike most Iraqis, the Mandaeans do not belong to tribal groupings. In the past,Mandaeans were able to negotiate protection agreements with tribes by paying considerablesums of money. However, due to the present situation of general insecurity in Iraq, Mandaeanscan no longer count on this type of arrangement and are therefore extremely vulnerable”41. Inaddition Mandaeans do not have their own identified geographical area like other religious andethnic minorities, but are scattered around the country. As a result it is extremely difficult tomove them to one particular location as part of a protection scheme. They have therefore fled thecountry in large numbers to save their lives, making them the most genuine refugees.The trend of violence against Mandaeans has continued as per the atrocities committed keepingin our minds that a lot more people left Iraq to neighbouring countries and more have beendisplaced internally within Iraq. On page 9/28, a field-visit-based report from CIGI (the centrefor International Governance Innovation, Canada):Minorities in Iraq The Other Victim,mentions that “the Mandaeans also have some very specific concerns... Their thin distributionmade them especially vulnerable to sectarian violence between larger groups and they have fledthe country by the tens of thousands: those that could not escape Iraq fled north and took refugein Erbil42”.Confiscation of property is a common, unpunished practice. Mandaean houses have being takenin areas of Baghdad, like Dora, Adhamia, and Sidia, in addition to other cities like Basra andBaquba. As they flee the area, a Mandaeans’ property is immediately occupied and often, police373839404142
http://www.christianexaminer.com/Articles/Articles%20Jan09/Art_Jan09_21.htmlhttp://www.uscirf.gov/images/AR2009/final%20ar2009%20with%20cover.pdfibidibidUK home office report COI. 30thof April 2007 on page 135, 21.70http://www.cigionline.org/publications/2009/1/minorities-iraq-other-victims
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and neighbours are unwilling to provide assistance or show concerns. In one instance, aMandaean family, in the Adamia region of Baghdad, went to the police to register theconfiscation of their house. They received no assistance from the police or the neighbours. Theircase was completely dismissed, and they later received a death threat advising them to eitherleave Baghdad or face the consequences. A report released in 2009 by the Human Rights Watch,stated that, “In Baghdad, returnees were seldom able to reclaim their former homes43”.Mandaeans who are unable to leave Iraq are internally displaced moving to different cities insidethe country or moving as many families together in one house in order to gain a sense of securityand protection. Some have tried to move to Kurdistan, however there is no system of support forrefugees neither the authorities are prepared to accept refugees. With recent regulations it hasbecome even more difficult to enter the area except for the well-off section and the highlyeducated. In addition Mandaeans fear that religious persecution may be carried out by Islamicextremists whilst in Kurdistan. Most of the families that moved to Kurdistan have subsequentlyleft to neighbouring countries like Syria. The provisional number of families for internallydisplaced stands at 128 in total, and 40 families moved from other parts of the country to Kirkuk.By Oct.2009 the MHRG has been informed that most of these families and the originalfamilies started to flee to other neighbouring countries.In early October 2009 researchers of the MHRG were informed that extreme discrimination isevident socially in the south of Iraq to the extent of regarding the Mandaeans -unclean-anduntouchable causing to them extreme difficulties.Employment in Iraq is now related to political, sectarian and ethnic affiliation rather thanqualifications. The ministries are divided among the Shia’a, Sunni, and Kurdish factions and theydeny all other religious and ethnic minorities chances of employment. Large numbers ofMandaeans are goldsmiths and silversmiths and cannot go to work, as they are easy targets.Many of their businesses have been confiscated44. According to the State Department in 2008,there was religiously based employment discrimination by the government45.Mandaeans have tried to express their concerns through the political process in Iraq. However,they have no voice in the parliament and no direct solid connection to any of the effectiveofficials. Contacts with officials, religious leaders, and political party leaders have resulted inunsullied promises and no end to any of the above atrocities. Many of Iraq’s most powerful andwell-positioned leaders are not always working toward national interests but sectarian interests46.The police force is corrupt, often helping attackers, and has little or no role in protectingminorities47. In a public meeting in London, UK, on May 2 2009, Mr. Al-Maliki, the Iraqi PrimeMinister, responded to a question about the Mandaean situation by denying that there isn’t anyspecial problem specific for them, claiming that Mandaeans just suffer like other Iraqis from thegeneral political unrest and lawlessness in Iraq. Also in a public meeting in Washington DC onJuly 25 2009, Mr. AlMaliki repeated exactly the same words.“The position of Iraqi Christians is vulnerable and Iraq must not be left alone to face this. It is acollective task,” said Mr. Abdul Mahdi, Vice President of Iraq at a conference hosted by theFrench institute of International Relations in Paris on Wednesday April 15 2009, according toAgency France-Press48.HPG Humanitarian Policy Group in their March 2008 report on page 4 mention that, “The Iraqigovernment has funds available, but the vast majority of this money has not been used to meet
http://www.hrw.org/en/world/-report-2009/iraqECRE report , 2 April 2007 http://www.ecre.org/files/ECRE%20Iraq%20Guidelines%20April%202007.pdf P 19http://www.uscirf.gov/images/AR2009/final%20ar2009%20with%20cover.pdf page 48Iraq Study group report http://www.usip.org/isg/ P 14ibid / P 13http://refugeeresettlementwatch.wordpress.com/2009/04/18/iraqs-vp-wants-christians-to-stay-pledges-protection/index.html
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humanitarian needs the capacity of line ministries is limited by corruption and mobilityconstraints, and officials have quit for fear of kidnapping and assassination49”.It was reported in the Human Rights Watch World Report 2009 stated that: The governmentcontinues to rest on a narrow political and ethnic/sectarian base50.Also it was reported in immigration and refugee board of Canada that the new Iraqi constitutionguarantees “full religious rights”to Christians, Yazidis, and Mandaean Sabeans, but also statesthat “no law may be enacted that contradicts the established provisions of Islam51”.It is well known that, so far, the dominant political ideology in Iraq is religious, of differentvariation to its extremities.
Threat of ExtinctionTaking into consideration the very small number of Mandaeans that has dispersed over a numberof countries as refugees, risk the extinction of this religion by assimilation and dissolution intothe surrounding religions. Accordingly, the situation must be observed very closely because thisminority, as a religion ethnic and linguistic, is unable to preserve its heritage, and thus subjectedto some sort of genocide. This is very well addressed through the following facts.The CIGI report of January 2009 states on page 5.18 that, “Iraqi minorities are at risk ofextinction52”.It is alarming that on the July 22 2007 LCHR (Leadership Council For Human Rights), it ismentioned the following about Mandaeans in Iraq: while instances of persecution have had adamaging effect on the well-being and cultural sustainability of the Mandaean people, never hasthis group come so close to extinction as in the ongoing crisis in Iraq53.In 2007, a letter from the Society for Threatened People GfBV, to the German chancellor statesthe following: “Dear Mrs Merkel, as once was the case with the Huguenots in Germany theMandaeans need a safe and tolerant exile. Otherwise their two thousand-year old religion, whichgoes back to John the Baptist, will be lost forever”.In the articleChicago Tribuneby Liz Sly, November 16 2008, it says that, “the extinction of theMandaean community is going to be one of the consequences of the Iraq War, an unintentionalconsequence, but how much more disastrous than that can you get? But Mandaeans have provedparticularly vulnerable, said Nathaniel Deutsch, professor of literature and history at theUniversity of California Santa Cruz54”.In an article published in Politics 2009, vol. 29(2), 93-99, page 96, titledThe Plight of Iraq’sMandaeans and Honderich’s Principle of Humanity,it states that, “Mandaeans can no longerexpect a homeland in Iraq, and so require one somewhere else. It is not acceptable thatMandaeans be scattered all over the world, as they currently are55”.
http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/download/1089.pdfwww.hrw.org/en/world-report-2009/iraqImmigration and Refugee Board of Canada)(RIRS) 15 January 2009www2.irb-cisr.gc.ca/en/research/rir/?action=record.viewrec&gotorec=452184http://iraqalaan.com/bm/bm~doc/cigi-special-report---advance-copy.pdfhttp://leadershipcouncil.blogspot.com/2007_07_22_archive.htmlhttp://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/122360122/issue
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All mentioned evidence indicate that one country is needed to have the refugees, as identified byMinority Rights Group International in their report released on the September 23 2009 whichstates on page 36 that, “In order to avoid dispersing small minorities such as the SabianMandaeans and Shabaks, and risking the complete disappearance of their cultures, governmentsof resettlement should consider cooperating to find a solution, with a view to identifying onecountry that could accept most refugees from a given community56”.
The situation of the Mandaean refugees in the middle countries(Where asylum seekers wait for approval and resettlement)Mandaeans are escaping mainly to Syria and Jordan. It is rather important to point out that theMandaean situation is different from other minorities as they do not have any identifiedgeographical area within Iraq to go to. They have no choice other than leaving Iraq. MoreoverMandaeans are virtually unknown outside Iraq with no international establishments that lookafter them, like other religious sects.According to the UNHCR/ Syria, February 2009 report, the number of Sabean (Mandaeans)individuals registered with the UNHCR is 8,535 which represent 3.8% of all registered refugees.Mandaeans are mostly established in the Germanha area of Damascus57. Currently, there areabout 100 in Jordan, mostly in Amman. The conditions of the refugees differ only slightlybetween the two countries. It was noticed that a large number of families cases were processedon individual basis and analyzed to the conclusion that they need resettlement, which bydefinition means that those families will not be able to go back to Iraq, and they need a thirdcountry to live in. This indicates that the vast majority of the families were subjected to severecircumstances, including persecution that makes them entitled for having the refugee status andthus resettlement. In our current estimations, there are more than 700 families in Syria andaround 15 families in Jordan that need to be included urgently in the UNHCR resettlementprogram. We have noticed that because the Mandaeans are not included as a group, some ofthem were rejected by the UNHCR program or by other countries like Australia and USArefugee programs. We believe that most of these rejections are due to language barriers andmiscommunication. These cases need to be reviewed and re-assessed for eligibility, according tothe group status and not as individual cases.The EU (European Union) Fact Finding mission to Jordan and Syria on resettlement of refugeesfrom Iraq (Justice and Home Affairs, European Union Council Meeting on November 20 2008),stated on page 1 that, “In both countries there is a clear need for resettlement, as for manyrefugees no other durable solution is likely to be available, even in the long term. Among therefugee population there are many clear and easily identifiable cases of vulnerability: inparticular persons with medical needs, victims of trauma and severe torture, women-head ofhouseholds, religious minorities”. It also states on page 9 V:Resettlement needs criteriaprioritization of Iraqi refugees for resettlement,item 2, “Members of minority groups and/orindividuals who are or have been targeted in COO owing to their religious/ethnic background58”.In April 7 2009, Refugee International released FIELD REPORT Iraq (Preventingthe point of noreturn),states on page 4 that, “The U.S and the international community must also turn theirattention to Iraqis who will not be able to return home, whether they are refugees or internallydisplaced. They may be too vulnerable to return, or have reasons to fear for their safety59”.__________________________________________56
http://www.minorityrights.org/8165/press-releases/uncertainty-and-injustice-for-minority-refugees-from-iraq-new-report.htmlhttp://www.un.org.sy/forms/publications/files/UNHCR_Syria_Update_February_2009.pdfwww.ec.europa.eu/indexhttp:// www.refugeesinternational.org/policy/field-report/iraq-preventing-point-no-return
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Another major problem that the Mandaean community faces is the huge scatter by the UNHCRand the accepting countries like USA. Mandaeans as a group should stay together and in closecommunities as their religion demands collectiveness in rituals and special language in additionnot accepting conversion or intermarriages. Some families have been scattered all over the globeby the accepting countries. Many who had the right for resettlement are still waiting for longperiods of time in hosting country.It is a well known fact that neither Syria nor Jordan are ready or able to deal with a large influxof refugees by their own resources. They are not refugee accepting countries. Asylum seekersand refugees are left to their own resources without any specific legal, social, medical,educational or financial help. At the border, they are given temporary stay, which when expired,they become illegal. These regulations are changeable which does not provide a sense ofsecurity. Illegal residents are not allowed to work and have no legal or social support from thegovernments, which makes them subjected to the threat of deportation if they have an encounterwith the police, even as victims. This leaves the door wide open for all sorts of abuse.Abuse of refugees by employers is widespread. Refugees are forced to work for long hoursillegally and are either paid with meals or are denied compensation and are constantly threatenedwith deportation if their case reaches police. Many families have been there for years and usedall of their savings. They therefore end up accepting any available employment.Women and children are falling prey to all sorts of abuse. Pressures of illegal employment,deportation, and even hunger forces women in the pit of sexual abuse. Some girls are being luredinto the sex trade and some are kidnapped and married by sex traders to be sold in othercountries as sex labourers. Such cases are known but will not be reported due to social stigma inthe Middle East communities.Children can not enter the education system easily, especially with the increase of financialburdens on their families. Most of the parents cannot afford to put their children in schools andthus many are left without education. Children are forced to work to help their parents. Somefactories take advantage of the government policies regarding refugees and employ children fornominal fees and long hours. Such cases are being reported on personal level but never reach theregulatory bodies or the police.Most refugees cannot afford to pay for the expensive health care systems in both Syria andJordan. There is no system for providing proper health care for the refugees. Few humanitarianorganizations in Amman provide some health care for free, but they do not have medications totreat many acute illnesses and provide much less for chronic ones. Most malignancies arediagnosed late, patients are not treated, and some are left to die. To add insult to injury, mostfamilies have no money to bury their dead. Some families started to beg in mosques andchurches and some even search the dumpsters for food. Psychological problems includingdepression and posttraumatic stress syndromes are widespread among both adults and children.These detailed information were collected by the MHRG members in their field visits to therefugees.All the listed above increased more by 2009 as the years of suffering endured by them iscontinuing and their resources are dwindling. It was also noticed that a few kidnappings occurredin these countries. Threats from gangs linked to Iraqi gangs appeared. Some Iraqi kidnapperswere identified by their victims and were reported to the local police; however, because thecrimes happened in Iraq the criminals were freely still roaming and threatening the Mandaeans.Most Mandaeans have presented their cases to the UNHCR offices in Amman and Syria. Theyare usually granted temporary protection cards, but those cards have no value with the authoritiesin both countries. The UNHCR regional offices in Syria had limited number of staff and
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resources until recently60. They were not able to deal with large numbers of refugees. However,the UNHCR did expand their offices in 2007-2008 but still need more resources and help inorder to deal with hundreds of thousands of refugees and be able to help them find propersolution to their dilemma.We urge the UNHCR to look at the most vulnerable of the minorities. The Mandaeans do notreceive particular support from any governmental or non-governmental agencies. Other Iraqirefugees have resources of financial support from countries and organizations affiliated to theirfaiths.There are large Mandaean communities in Australia, Sweden and USA. We hope that the rest ofthe resettled refugees will follow their community to be able to continue their faith freely in asafe place.Two Mandaean families are still in Yemen one of them has been there for more than 6 years.Their cases should be dealt with ASAP by the USA immigration authorities as they are theresettlement country as per UNHCR in Yemen. Six families in Libya have been waiting for asolution for more than 3 years.The Mandaean Refugees are targeted for planned conversions60a.
Mandaean ReturneesOn March 31 2009, in a testimony submitted by refugee international for a hearing before theU.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, (One Hundred Eleventh Congress), the firstsection stated on page 7 that, “The U.S and the international community must also turn theirattention to Iraqis who will not be able to return home, whether they are refugees or internallydisplaced. They may be too vulnerable to return, or have reasons to fear for their safety”. Also onpage 4 it stated: “As for IDPs, many fear returning because returnees have been killed”60b.On March 8 2008, Mr. Muhanad Safaa Al-Dehaisi was killed in Al-Bayaa area in Baghdad, lessthan twenty-four hours after his return to Baghdad. He was in Jordan as a refugee and was forcedto return after exhausting all his living resources. The lack-of-resources problem is getting worsefor all Mandaeans in Syria and Jordan who can never return to Iraq and thus a solution has to befound urgently.Abdul Kareem Mutashar Sbahi Al-Gaelani, a Mandaean man born on July 1 1957, waskidnapped on March 10 2007 after being deported from Denmark on December 29 2006. Thevictim had to pay the ransom in order to be released and then find a refuge in a different country.Tahseen Abdullah Abid Shindy was found dead after two weeks of kidnapping that took place onFebruary 3 2007, on his way to Ramadi province after returning to Iraq from Syria. The victim’sfamily never received the body, and left Iraq to live Syria.Hiatham Mahdi Saleh was brutally murdered at his house in Al-Saydiya district in Baghdad, afterreturning from Jordan on September 5 2006.Raa’d Farhan Shnan was Kidnapped for more than 7 months after returning to Iraq form Syria.His body was then dumped in Al-Bayaa district of Baghdad on March 19 2008 and the victimwas announced dead ten days later.________________________________________60
http://www.hrw.org/reports/2006/jordan 1 106/www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb/nsf/db900sid/SODA-6272WR?OpenDocument&Click60bwww.refugeeinternational.org/policy /testimony/return-and-resettlement-displaced-iraqis60a
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The above mentioned details were re-submitted to the UNHCR office in Geneva in May 2009O.On Saturday, September 19 2009, two young goldsmiths, Mr Farqad Faiq Authman and Mr.Muhand Qasim Abdul-Razzaq (both in their twenties), were massacred by four masked gun menusing silenced guns and knives. After several bullets in their heads, the victims were knifeddown to die. Both murdered used to be in Syria a year before, when their refugee applicationswere rejected by Australia. They applied for the UNHCR but their processing was delayed forsome unknown reasons. After all their money had dwindled, both returned to Basra / Iraq wherethey lost their lives in the same morning, with a religiously motivated crime.The Mandaean community is quite disturbed with the actions and decisions of some countries, inrelation to asylum seekers. Recently some Mandaean cases (who applied for asylum on arrivingto Sweden), receive immediate rejection as if they are forced to return to Iraq where they wouldbe very vulnerable. In a letter from Refugee International to the Danish government it stated: TheThe Mandaean community in Denmark is supposed to be qualified for special protectionmeasures, based on the conditions currently prevailing in Iraq61.50.The Iraqi Refugee Committee wrote in its report of 2008: “There is a need for the EuropeanUnion to adopt common policies and practices toward Iraqi asylum seekers in order to harmonizeprotection standards and ensure that no one is forcibly returned to Iraq. Tragically, some EUmember states are still sending Iraqis back to Iraq62.It was noted that nearly 50% of the families who escaped to Arbil in the last 2 years, have movedto Syria and Jordan. Also, as recent as September 2009, many families left Kirkuk too.In a letter dated October 23 2006, issued by the European Centre for Kurdish studies addressedto the highest court authority in Düsseldorf (Germany), it was mentioned that; “it is not possiblefor Mandaeans to establish presence in northern Iraq due to lack of job opportunities, languagedifficulties and continued religious harassment by Kurdish extremists”. We noticed that the samesituation is consistent for two years now.P
MRG 2008 report commented that; “for most Mandaeans, relocation to the KRG was not anoption, as few had family or community ties in the area63”.The United States Commission on international religious Freedom annual report of May 2009states that, “Interviews with some returning refugees indicate that they are returning because ofthe difficult economic conditions in their countries of asylum. The Iraqi government is providingreturning families with cash assistance, but concerns remain about safety, security, inadequateemployment opportunities and services”.While the MPI Migration Policy Institute states in its report dated January 18 2008,The IraqiRefugee Crisis:“TheNeed For Action(page 23), currently illegal entry is practically the onlyway for Iraqis to enter the EU member state in order to claim asylum. It is estimated that the costto reach Europe from Iraq is as much as $10,000. Not surprisingly, it is usually the elite who areable to make the trip. Even within Jordan and Syria, the majority are middle class and welleducated, while the poor are left behind in Iraq64”.The International Rescue Committee fully agrees with the UNHCR statement of November 23,2008 on returns to Iraq:“UNHCR does not believe that the time has come to promote, organize
www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb/nsf/db900sid/SODA-6272WR?OpenDocument&Clickwww.theirc.org/resources/2008/iraq-report.pdf(Home Office-Country Of Origin Report 2009 page 137, .21.50)www.migrationpolicy.org/pubs/mpi-the_Iraqi_refugee_crisis_the_need_for_action_011808.pdf
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or encourage return”.Also the(UNHCR spokesperson Jennifer Pagonis briefing note:“UNHCR cautious about returns65”.51The UNHCR launched an appeal document (Jan 8 2008) to fund its operations for 2008 onbehalf of Iraqi refugees and stresses that “UNHCR cannot, at this time, promote or encourage thereturn of Iraqi refugees, citing continuing security concerns and other factors66”.52The MPI states that: “This movement back to Iraq does not necessarily indicate that conditionsare improving or that returns are even voluntary67”.53The Ministry of Displacement and Migration of Iraq and the International Organization forMigration / Baghdad, in a report of March 2009 failed to mention of any Mandaean returning toIraq.The report released in April 2008 by Refugees International stated: “Returns, largely by a lack ofresources and assistance in the places of displacement, have taken place on a small scale, buthave proven to be unsustainable, as many returnees ended up having to flee again68”.54
What is the solution?Between the 1stand 4thof July 2009, forty four delegates from thirty two Mandaean associationsor their world wide representatives, and also representative from Iraq, met in Sodertalje –Stockholm- Sweden to discuss the Mandaean situation as an ethno religious and linguisticminority and as a indigenous people of Iraq. Long discussions took place in relations to thedocuments of the conference which were presented to the community members in all of thecountries over six months prior to the conference. The delegates were concerned and disturbedabout Mandaeans’ status, and expressed alarming accounts about their very existence andcontinuation and sustainability as a small community with the previously mentioned specificcriteria.Our community in Iraq is still in need of active protection, formal institutional and parliamentaryrecognition, as equal citizens without human rights violations. The delegates did recognise thatthe Mandaeans are a native of Iraq and do look forward for a peaceful and secure Iraq where allcitizens can live freely.However, the delegates expressed distressing alarm about the continuous atrocities against theMandaeans, abuse of their heritage and property as community and as individuals, and thecritical balance of security for the small numbers left there which are less than 5000 peopledistributed in many cities and locations.
For the Mandaeans inside Iraq:Urgent steps:Urgent steps are needed to provide security and build trust between the minorities and the majorruling powers. These steps can be summarised by:After the Iraqi authorities recognized that the problem of minorities, do exist, there was a needto establish “Minorities Security Council” in Iraq. This Council should directly linked to thePM office and include in addition to all representatives of minorities, representatives from theUN agencies. The job of this council is to guarantee fast response in cases of emergency,proper investigations, and follow up plans of action to restore confidence. It would be the65666768
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proper place for the minorities to voice their concerns since they have no properrepresentation on any level.The constitutional changes should be implemented to guarantee proper parliamentaryrepresentation of the minorities on a quota bases.The legal system should be improved, changed and cleared of the old laws that hinder theproper ability of religious minorities to practice their own way of life. The legal system has along way until it becomes re-educated and changed to guarantee the rights of all the society tolive in peace and harmony.The Government of Iraq (GOI) should actively punish those clergies who preach fordisregarding the rights of other religions or call for discrimination in public or private TheGOI should also work with the religious leaders on producing a clear Fatwa’s for thetolerance and acceptance of all other minorities by both Islamic Sunni and Shia’a clergies.The GOI should address the refugee problem responsibly and show responsibility in thehumanitarian efforts and address it as an Iraqi problem rather than a UNHCR problem.Employment should be based on citizenship rather than party or sectarian affiliations.GOI should establish a true rule of law to prevent the illegal confiscation of Mandaean housesand belongings.A program should be in place to guarantee the rights of minorities as an indigenous Iraqipopulation whose rights are preserved, in addition to their properties to maintain a home forthem to return to in the future.Long term steps:Changes in the constitution to guarantee equity based on citizenship, and to remove anyreligious or sectarian notions that may hinder the real democracy to be established.The GOI (Government of Iraq) should work with the Islamic religious establishment toproduce “Fatwas” that recognise the Mandaeans as “Peopleof the Book”and to prohibit anyreligious discrimination by actively educating the society about religious co-existence throughMedia venues, schools, and resources.The GOI should help build the infrastructure of the Mandaean religious establishment in Iraqand guarantee descent living for the priests as well as maintaining and establishing properplaces for worship.
For the Mandaean refugees:The international community and especially the USA, the UK, Australia, the EU countries,UNHCR, and all other NGO’s, should act to prevent this humanitarian disaster fromcontinuing: One of the oldest and most peaceful communities in the Middle East is beingannihilated under the eyes of the international community69.The Mandaeans’ continued presence as refugees in Syria and Jordan is not possible anymore.The only durable solution to the refugees’ plight is to have them settled in safe countries suchas Australia, USA or Sweden. As discussed above, it seems there is no chance that thesituation in Iraq will be hospitable for them in the near future and the return to Iraq at the________________________________________69
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present time is not feasible. Although, it is fair to say that the safety situation may beimproving in some areas in Iraq for certain refugee populations, however this is not the casefor Mandaeans. Consequently, the only option to save Mandaeans culture and religion fromextinction is to relocate them as a group rather than individuals. Otherwise their ancientculture, tradition, religion and language will disappear forever. The University of In RutgersLinguist, works to preserve Mandaean language and culture articles specifically mentions: “Ifyou send an Iraqi Catholic to Switzerland, he will easily find a church that will embrace him,Sending four families of Mandaeans to Switzerland…what happens to their children? It’sreally finishing up what the insurgency has done, which is to annihilate this religion from theface of this earth”. The comment is made by the General Secretary of the MandaeanAssociation Union.TPT
As a last resort, Mandaean refugees are randomly accepting their resettlement in differentcountries due to desperation, which is quite destructive to the community.In an interview by the BBC, Dr Layla Alroomi revealed: “We feel our community, ourreligion, and our culture are slipping away from our hands”. The BBC states that, “There arefewer than 1,000 Mandaeans living in the UK. Their faith, which came before Islam andChristianity, is based on pacifism and began in what is now Iraq before the birth of Christ.”Dr. Alroomi added: “We have no priest…We don’t have a place to meet70”.55
The U.N declaration for the protection of indigenous, ethnic and religious minorities iscompatible with the situation of Mandaeans, and should be applied. Furthermore, theInternational law for the prevention of genocide should be considered for the Mandaeans’case71.56.Because of the role and responsibility of the United States in Iraq, and the commitments thatthe Coalition governments have made before and after the invasion of Iraq, the United States,the United Kingdom, and Australia have special obligations, least of which is morally to stepup and save the Mandaeans and other religious minorities in Iraq72. These governmentsshould acknowledge that Mandaeans will not be safe from persecution in Iraq in anyeventuality, and should therefore provide Mandaeans with permanent protection by acceptingthem for resettlement.The United States of America, in particular, should have obligations to save the Mandaeans ofIraq. The United States Government should grant a P2 visa without delay to the Mandaeanrefugees as members of an extremely endangered religious minority that is at the verge ofextinction due to religious persecution as recommended. In the Human Rights First report:Promises to the Persecuted,The refugee Crisis in Iraq Act of 2008,released April 2009section Promises to the Persecuted- sec 5 :To the State Department: Create additional P2resettlement categories for vulnerable groups, as directed by the Act, Including, certain Iraqireligious and minority groups-e.g.Mandaeans and LGBT Iraqis, who continue to face lifethreatening danger inside Iraq and have little prospective of safe return- including thosewithout close family members in the United States73.57
Also in the USCIRF page 52: In February 2008, the State Department announced a newpolicy increasing direct access for certain Iraqis to the U.S. Refugee admissions program, asrequired by the Refugee Crisis in Iraq Act of 2007. Among the requirements of that Act is thecreation of a new Priority-2 (P2) category in the U.S. Refugee Admission program for certainIraqis from “religious or minority” communities with close family members in the UnitedStates, allowing them to apply directly for resettlement in the U.S without the UNHCR70717273
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/7678123.stmhttp://www.genocidewatch.org/news/IraqGenocideWatchMandaeansofIraq.htmhttp://www.usip.org/isg/p9 (Iraq Study Group report)http://www.humanrightsfirst.org/pdf/090428-RP-iraqi-progress.pdf
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primary referral. The amendment also authorized the Secretary of State to create additional P2categories for other vulnerable Iraqis.In our report posted in March 2008, we pointed out the importance of a P2 Visa, and this iseagerly awaited and hoped for. However it is important to consider a few cities or localitiesfor the resettlement instead of the current criteria where Mandaeans are scattered among morethan 32 US states which makes their long term survival, as a distinctive group, questionable.Based on the HPG (Humanitarian Policy Group) Policy Brief 30 Humanitarian action in Iraq:Putting the pieces together on page 1 in Key messages pointed out a reasonable approach torefugee Iraqi communities which applies to the Mandaeans: “There is an urgent need toestablish a common humanitarian agenda in Iraq and to reassert a clear humanitarian identity.This demands that agencies establish the means to assess needs and priorities and to speakwith one voice. It also demands a reaffirmation of humanitarian principles as a basis of a newcompact with civil society and Iraqi communities74”.In the MRG (Minority Rights Group International) annual report, released in September 2009,on page 4, it states the, “In order to avoid dispersing more minorities such as the SabianMandaeans and Shabaks, and risking the complete disappearance of their cultures,governments of resettlement should consider cooperating to find a solution, with a view toidentifying one country that could accept most refugees from a given community notwithstanding family reunification74a”.58
The MHRG noticed that an ideal approach to the problem of the Mandaeans analyzed in thereport by Refugee Council Of Australia (RCOA) Australia’s Refugee and HumanitarianProgram 2009- 10, on page 39/40-- 5.6 states that:.Building cooperation betweenresettlement states:Current approaches of states in their resettlement negotiations withUNHCR encourage piecemeal solutions, with a multitude of states regularly taking smallnumbers of refugees from the same refugee camps. Within each country, these refugees areoften dispersed to a variety of cities and towns, with authorities in many localitiessimultaneously facing the challenge of finding interpreters and suitable settlement support forwhat was originally a single population. This is particularly problematic for a group like theMandaeans, forced out of Iraq by terrible persecution and now struggling to maintain areligious and cultural identity as they are dispersed into many countries. Resettlementprocedures caused splitting of, not only communities in general, but also families by resettlingmembers of the same family to different cities sometime. Australia could play a role inbrokering discussion about how resettlement countries could permit resettled refugees torejoin relatives who have been resettled elsewhere. Simple measures, such as adjustments toresettlement quotas, could be put in place to compensate any nation which experiences anoticeable net influx of refugees through this process. The lessons learned from thisexperience could help to inform UNHCR’s practice in resettlement, informing attempts toreduce the incidence of families being separated in the future. RCOA believes that Australiashould foster discussion, through UNHCR’s Annual Tripartite Consultations on Resettlement,and how individual countries could take primary responsibilities for resettlement of particularrefugee situations. If supported, this would help to address some of the problems of dispersalmentioned earlier and enable each resettlement country to focus settlement on refugees from asmaller number of language and cultural groups75.59UNISCO has already declared the Mandaean language a threatened language. Theinternational community should look seriously in helping the Mandaean refugees to resettle inone country, which permits religious freedom and help preserve their language and where acommunity of Mandaeans can preserve their existence for the future.
www.odi.org.uk/hpghttp://www.minorityrights.org/8132/reports/uncertain-refuge-dangerous-return-iraqs-uprooted-minorities.htmlsee also http://www.minorityrights.org.download.php?id=690www.refugeecouncil.org.au/Docs/resources/submissions/2009-10-intakesub.pdf
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The UNHCR has an urgent obligation to start processing more cases for resettlement, and dealwith the Mandaeans as a group. Currently, there are more than 700 Mandaean families thatneed urgent assessment and approval for resettlement. We urge the organization to take activesteps to provide protection for Mandaean refugees in Jordan and Syria and give them a properlegal status to prevent abuses.The UNHCR should consider granting all Mandaeans a full refugee status as a group and noton an individual basis, and giving them complete protection from forcible returns to Iraqguided by the RCOA (Refugee Council of Australia) analysis76”.Proper Medical, and humanitarian assistance should be offered as well as financial support toagencies that can provide such help to the refugees. Active steps from the European Unionand USA should also be taken to secure the funds assigned to Mandaean refugees
The Government of Iraq (GOI) should guarantee that each refugee should receive, at least, thebasic humanitarian support, including health and education, either directly or through the UNagencies. After all they are Iraqi citizens who escaped their country due to failure of the GOIto provide them with protection. The government has a legal and moral responsibility to givethem the basic support.The GOI should be responsible for recording and protecting the properties abundant in Iraq byMandaeans who fled seeking for protection. This should also include protection of allMandaean history such as documentation, and archives until such time when Mandaeans’return becomes safe.Militia leaders should be held accountable for crimes committed against humanity when theyor their followers are caught by police in the future, and publicise such cases to give a firmsignal that violence against religious minorities cannot be tolerated.The MHRG believes that the complexity and the seriousness of the Mandaean situationjustifies an urgent international conference supported by the U.N and the internationalcommunity, to analyze the future according to the self determination of Mandaeans as per theinternational law and their rights as indigenous people.
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ConclusionThe Mandaeans are part of the indigenous people of Iraq. They are a religious and ethnicminority that is facing annihilation. All articles of the UN declaration that apply to the protectionof the indigenous, ethnic and religious minorities are compatible with the Mandaeans’ situationand should be applied. The Sabian Mandaeans in Iraq are looking for protection from the hatecrimes that they are facing accordingly. Mandaeans are looking for the UNHCR, USA, Australiaand Sweden in particular and the international community in general to save their lives, children,and culture, and to prevent the genocide that is currently happening to them.We believe that the situation is beyond the Mandaeans’ ability to recover from this storm as theymanaged to do in the past. More than 85% of the Mandaean community live abroad, and so dothe vast majority of their priests. The international community should look at gathering theMandaean refugees in one country as their only hope of continuing as one group.There are about five thousand Mandaeans who still live in Iraq hoping that the situation willimprove in the future. The community leadership inside Iraq is looking forward for active steps bythe Iraqi government to improve security and build bridges of trust with them and all otherminorities..
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AppendixAtrocities against the Sabian Mandaean Religion followers SinceApril 9 2003List of the Murdered Mandaeans20031.’, Sadam Hummadi Obaid, April 23th, Maisan province.Sabih Shibib Elbab (60 yrs old), April 26th, Baghdad.Hassani Rahim Al Othmani, May 15th, Souwerah, South Baghdad.Khalid Ferhan Saif, May 3rd, Basra province.Zaman Abd Alhamid Adeed, June, Karada, Baghdad.Karim Askar Al Othmani, June 26th, Souwerah, South Baghdad.Fakriah Khthir Kattan (housewife), July, Baghdad.Yahya Bardan Aflog, August, Baqoubah province.Ahsan Bardan Aflok, August, Baqoubah province.Nasha’t Abdul Raheem Sadeq born 1948 has been targeted on the morning of August 13th2003on his way to work by militants who arranged and set him in a trap, hitting him on the head. Hethen taken to Al-Yarmook hospital and announced dead after few hours.Salim Mohan Aljayzani, September, Hai AlShaab, Baghdad.Firas Faraj Saleh, October, Habaniya, Ramadi province.Farooq Ati Lasam, October 9th, Baghdad.Satar Radi Zboon, (45 yrs old), October 22nd, New Baghdad, Baghdad. Satar murdered in frontof large crowd.Mohand Abd-Alsahab Almhanawi, November 7th, Baghdad.Dafar Abd Alrahim Khoga, November, Mansour, Baghdad.Nasir Sabah Abdallah (interpreter), November, Baghdad.Monther Hasson Mola Al-Khamesi, (25 yrs old), December 13th, Al Shorta/4, Baghdad.PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
200419.’a Abdalahad Mtashar, January, Maisan province.Laith Anis Amoor, January 11th, Baghdad.Kasam Lafta Katen, February 7th, Baghdad.Riyad Badri Zbari, February 10th, Baghdad.Asad Hadi Khafi, February, Baghdad.Shafa’a Nasar Majeed (miss), February, Baghdad.Raad Arbi Abeed, February, Baghdad.Ahmad Mahar Abdallah, March, Baghdad.Salman Abdallah Al-Khamisi, May, Baghdad.Mazin Hesnawi, May 17thMrs Ibtisam A Sabhan (born 01/07/1936) killed on August 1stin Baghdad for refusing to giveher daughter for marriage to terrorist and refusing to pay ransom. Her Son was killed in Basra in2003 by extremists.Haytham Abdul-Razaq Talib, November, by Um Al Tobool Mosque, Baghdad.Yahya Haithem Abdul-Razaq (Child), November, by Um Al Tobool Mosque, Baghdad.Rand Salam Talib, (19 yrs old), November, by Um Al Tobool Mosque, Baghdad.Mazin Majad Hazam Al-Sabiri (45 yrs old), December 10th, Al Bayaa, Baghdad.Abdalsada Aumarah killed in 2004 in Baghdad by hit and run speeding car leaving a wife andfive daughters.PPPPPPPPP.PPPP
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200535. Salim Mutar, January 3rd, Al Sader City, Baghdad.Ryad Radhi Habib, leader of the Mandaean Council in Basra, January 16th, Basra province.Jamal Khmas Tamol (Veterinary doctor), February 1st, Baghdad.Wasfi Majid Khashkool (35 yrs old), February 5thWaleed Hasan Thabit (45 yrs old), February 28th, Al Dora, Baghdad.Muhannad Khazaal Lafta, March, Baghdad. Lafta was bludgeoned to death with hammers.Salwa Samir Aziz (25yrs old, miss), March, Baghdad.Wisam Majid Khaskool Al-Mesodni, April, Amiriya, Baghdad.Rahman Sabri Almajadi, April 14th, Baghdad.Khairy Abdul Razaq, April 2nd, Al Mechanics, Baghdad. Murdered in his office with machineguns.Moayad Ibrahim Mohiy Kzar, April 11th, Baghdad.Salah Lafta Saleh (20 yrs old), June 1st, Ramadi province, kidnapped from University byextremist who had learned Saleh was a Mandaean. His body was found thrown in a streetAmar Daif Karem (18 yrs old), June, Nasreah province.Maher Sharad Zbala, June 6th, Baghdad, murdered in front of his familyAbdul Raheem Al-Musodani, June 15th, Al Dora, Baghdad.Nawar Hameed Dakheel, June 28th, murdered by his houseBasim Shenshal Al-Sunaid, July 15th, Al Mansour, Baghdad.Haitham Mahdi Saleh, July, Al Saydia, Baghdad, brutally murdered in his homeFawzi Mezban Al-Khameesi (50 yrs old), July 31st, Baghdad. He was kidnapped from his house,tortured, killed and cut into pieces. No ransom was was demanded nor was any thing stolen fromhis house.Anwar Manam Saleh (20 yrs old), August 15th, Ramadi province.Saeed Naeem Thahab (40 yrs old), August 24th, Baghdad.Issam Jabar Hamadi, September 28th, Baghdad.Marwan Salam Sabri Salman (Child), September 28th, Al Bayaa, Baghdad.Kamal Rathi Zabon, October 10th, Baghdad.Amjad Naeem Dhahab, October 3rdDafer Zaki, October 20th, Baghdad.Basam Kasam Sokawi (19 yrs old), November 13th, Baghdad.Khairy Satar Farhan (Contractor), November, Al Dora, Baghdad.Ahmad Zaki Al-Mandawa, November.Sarah Najim Hani, December 28thPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
200665. Sahar, February 15th, Al-Suwara.Mahir Jameel Jeyad Al- Zuhairy, April 9th, killed after paying ransom, he was strangled, burntand threw near to a dump.Adel J. Al-Kalmashi, May 23rd, unknown group threatened him, Adel left the area, but has beenkilled after been identifiedSalam Menatei, May 26th, Baghdad, murdered in front of his familyAhmad Atta, May 28th, Al Amel, Baghdad, received threat to leave the area, he did, but waskilled in his shop and his body was left in the street for a while.Yahya Barakh Bahidh Al-Chuhaily, June 6thkilled near Rumadi with an attempt to kill thewhole family. His two daughters and two year old son (killed on 6thof June) on the Ramadihighway.His wife, sister and other daughter where badly injured and in hospital. They were stoped byinsurgence during their escape to Jordan and killed after they knew they were Mandaeans (totalnumber killed 3)PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP
November 30 200972.73.74.PPPP
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Shahad Al- Chuhaily Child 3yrs, June 6thkilled with father.Noor Al- Chuhaily, Child 12 yrs, killed on June 6thwith father.Wud Al- Chuhaily, Child 14 yrs, June 6thkilled with father. The Mother; Hanaa Joory Zahi (MrsAl-Chuhaily) Injured and now suffer from severe nervous breakdown because she witness one ofher daughter’s body being torn in two pieces. The other children, Azal 6y, Rafal 8y severe leftwith severe psychological trauma.Manhal Heliel, June, Al Shaab, Baghdad & injured his Son, June.Jaseb Edan Lafta, June 17th, Al Sader city, Baghdad.Atif Saeed Al-Kilany, June 19th, Baghdad.Mezdeher Kalid Al-Muhanna, July 17th, Mahmodia area.Raheem Rasheed Al-Sabiri, July 5th, Al Dora, Baghdad.Zuhair Oaddah Fandi, July 7th, Al Dora, Baghdad.Rasheed Abed Wady, July 9th, Baghdad.Bassam Ali Ka'aed Alkalmshi (23yrs old), July 20th, Al Shaab, Baghdad.Shihab Algum Dukhan Al-Othmani August 27th, Deyala province.Diyaa Noori Nasir Shiltagh Al-Musoodni, August 30th.Kousay Sabah Shamikh Zighayer (23yrs old), August 31st, Kurkok province.Razzak Jabbar Al-Mihanna, September 26th, Baghdad, he was slaughtered.Fadaam Kawoosh Al-Sabahi Al-Mandawi (74 yrs old), October 6th, Killed and injured his Sonseriously.Raad Matar Falih Al-Othmani, October 10th, Al-Suwara, South of Baghdad.Ali Riyad Saeed Dakheel Al-Khafagi, October 11th, Abo Ghraib, South of Baghdad.Husam Jabbar Abaid Al-Zuhairi, October 16th, Baghdad.Oday Abdulla Abid Al-Sada Al-gaylani, October 21st, Mahmoodia, South of Baghdad.Ziad Majed Sabbar Al-Zuhairi (17 yrs old), October, Al Yarmook, Baghdad.Muhamad Fahmi Durbash Al-Dulaimi, November, Deyala province.Azhar Ameen, Farhan (miss), November 9th, Al Saidia, Baghdad.Hazim Raheem Zghair Al-Zuhairi (19 yrs old), November 11th, Mahmoodia, south Baghdad,Suhail Jani Sahar, born 1946, Nov 19th, EskanderiaAbid Kareem Hajim Sultan Al-Kulmishi, born 1929, November 21st, Hay Al Amel, BaghdadSon of Kadir Amer Al-Khamis (Waiting for more information )Maysaa Harbi Thurb Al-Mahanawi (miss), November 28th, Hay Al Amel, BaghdadTalib Salman Araby, practicing to be a religious leader, November.Kareem Salman Araby, December 2nd, killed near his house execution style, Hay Uoor,Baghdad.Kareem Jabbar Al- Mihanna, body found slaughtered on December 12th, Hay Al Amel,Baghdad. His brother slaughtered on September 26th2006Jehad salman Al-Nashi, December 26thWasif Aziz Lami Al-Dehaisi, a Pharmacist, assassination attempt in December, he shot badly inthe back and leg, in hospital in critical condition.PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP,PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP.
2007105.106.Dr Sabah Zahroun Waham Al-Sam, January, Al Mansour, Baghdad.On January 11th2007 the Mandaee Shakir Aboud Kammas was subjected to injury by shootingwith nine shots, they were targeting his life. People then transferred him to Syria for treatment,as well as fear of the return of offenders and murderers, but he died there on January 22nd.Abdul Wahed Ghanem Luaeby (born 1962, driver to sect leader), January 15th, Al Jaderia bridge,Baghdad.Haleem Janzeel Muhaibes Al-Zuhairy, January 20th, Maysan province.Hameed Ghazi Kareem Al-Eadany, February 2nd, Al Dora, Baghdad.Ramzi Adday Al-Zuhairy, February 5th, Hay Al Amel, Baghdad.Ramzi is father to 7 daughters living in Saidia, Baghdad. His family recieved many threats byphone for arranging a furenal to him.
November 30 2009112.113.114.
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Wesam Jar Allah Manhoosh Al-Sabti (born Basra 1963), killed on February 7th, Baghdad forarranging a funeral for Ramzi above.Saidiya Saeed Al-Khafagi (Mrs), February 14thtogether with her boys and kidnapping herdaughters to unknown destination.Tahseen Abdullah Abid Shindy found dead after two weeks of kidnapping which took place onFebruary 3rd2007 on the way to Ramadi province His family never received the body. Familyleft Iraq to live in Syria.Salih Mahdi Habeeb, March 11th, Saidia, Baghdad.Husham Auda Zghair Al-Khamisi condemn publicly kidnapping his brother Saad on March 8th2007 which led to the return of same gunmen, kicking him badly, loosing conciseness then diedafter a week on March 15th2007.The above two victim’s brother Adnan killed in Anbar which led to their father passing a way asa result.Eman Ali Hoozy (Mrs), April 15th,Baghdad besides her three daughters:Maryam Riyadh KhazaalMalak Riyadh KhazaalYamama Riyadh KhazaalMane’e Funjan Nu’aman Al-Suhaily, April 18th, Al Ea’lam, Baghdad.Yahya Abadi Al-Uthmani, May 4th, Nasiriya province.Adel Mubarak Ibrahim (born 1980), May 17th, Al Dora, Baghdad.Salama Hamdi Salih (Mrs) killed on May 22nd2007 in a truck explosion in Al-Amel district,Baghdad Husband Atshan Khashan injured.Brothers Bassam and Ghasan Ma’yoof attacked by machine gun on May 25th2007 at work atKhoor Al Zubair south of Basra killing Bassam and severely injuring his brother Ghasan.Layla Laiby Mukalaf Al-Khamisi (Mrs.), June 12th, Al Saidia, Baghdad.Bader Haloob Waheem Al-Khamisi, July 1st, Al Ea’lam, Baghdad.Esam Abdul Jabbar Funjan, July 9th, Baghdad.Noor Saad Al-Khamisi (17 yrs old), July 10thon the way back from Syria.Aatif Jamil Muhuy Kezar Al- Khamisi (born 1965), August 5th, Al Qadisiya, Baghdad.Arslan Aatif Abdul Raheem Al- Khamisi, August.Husham Kamil Muhuy Kezar Al- Khamisi born 1964 father of 3 shot and killed on September3rd2007 by militants on his way to work in Al-Doora district, Baghdad.Nabeel Khaleel Nasir Jabur Al- Khamisi, September 27th, Abo Disheer, Baghdad.Nazal Jallab Suwady Al- Mesodny, October, karkuk province.Abdul Nabby Abdul Sada Turfy born 1955 kidnapped in Al Bayaa district, Baghdad on October23rdthen killed on October 26thin spite paying $ 50000 ransom. His only Son 21 yrs old Eahabkidnapped prior to this incident and released after paying ransom.Kan’an Leelo Rayhan, November 16th, Al Bayaa, Baghdad.Bashar Leelo Ghawi, December 12th, Maysan province.Hani Ghadeer Hajim Al-Kuhaili, December 25th, Al Nahar street, Baghdad.Falah Saleem Lazem, December 30thafter receiving gun shots on December 25thin Al NaharStreet, Baghdad.
2008141.142.Salman Abdullah Nasir killed in Falooja because no ransom has been paid for his release.Najat Abid Gate’a widow born 1959 killed by mortar attack at parent’s house in Kut on March29th2008 after escaping threat received in Baghdad, the attack led to the killing of another 9members of the same family:Son Mahdi Salih Nae’em born 1986Son Husam Salih Nae’em born 1990Son Yahya Salih Nae’em born 1998Daughter Nuha Salih Nae’em (Miss) born 1995Enas Safaa Gate’a daughter in law to Mr. Abid Gate’a (Mrs) born 1980
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Daughter Basma Moayad Abid Gate’a born 1999Daughter Luma Moayad Abid Gate’a born 2001Anhar Muhanad Abid Gate’a born 1986Semadra Raad Da’oor born 2007, died on March 30th2008Anhar Salim Khalaf killed on June 9th2008 at his (shop) work place in Al-Ma’amoon district,Baghdad. The shop located in a close market which surrounded by four police check points.Mahdi Abd Al-Kareem Al- Karboli born 1953, BsC in Law killed on September 8th2008, at his(shop) work place in Al-Sha’ab district, Baghdad besides two other member of the family:Son Ahmad Mahdi Abd Al-Kareem Al- Karboli age 7Brother Kamil Abd Al-Kareem Al- Karboli born 1965, technician. Total number of bullets firedat the 3 victims by unmasked gang count to 16Young Mandaean Saif Majed Al-Majidi killed on October 12 2008 by explosion in Al-Bayaadistrict, Baghdad on his return from University
2009157. Hameed Al-BadriYoung Mandaean Uns Haytham Al-Badri, son to victim Haytham above.Louay Asa'd Al-Badri, all above three killed on April 19th2009 and injured two othersMandaeans after attack using guns with silencers in Al-Toobchy district, Baghdad.Sameer Araby Shamkhi killed on April 25th2009 in Al-Shaab district, Baghdad.Weam Abdul-Nabi Lazim has been attacked in the morning of August 6th2009 in Al-Iskandistrict, Baghdad by militants killing him using guns with silencers and looting all businessbelongs and valiables.Abdul Wahid Kudami Bander Hillo’s residence attacked by militants on September 2nd2009 inBaghdad Al-Gadeda district, Baghdad leaving him dead and causing injuries to his wife MaleehaMuhawy whom taken to Al-Kundi hospital for treatment. The victim is the cousin to SheikhSattar head of Mandaeans community.Farkad Fae’k Uthman and Muhanad Kasem Abdul Razzak two young Mandaeans killed bymilitant attacking them on September 9th2009 in Zubair district , Basra. Farkad shot with fewbullets to the chest using gun with silencers. Muhanad shot twice at Kidney and stapped fewtimes in the neck.
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List of The Kidnapped MandaeansThe following are a few examples of kidnappings. Most of the kidnappings are dealt with throughintermediaries in full silence or else death will follow: B. Z., May 2003, kidnapped and assaulted.Miss N. S. S., Baghdad.S. L. R.., (age 29), July 2nd2003, Baghadad, still missingL.F.K., (25yrs), Mandaean woman, October, Baghdad, still missingDenial Salam Ajeel Shaher, child, October 27th, BaghdadEvan Shafeeq Bader Kumar, (8 yrs. old), BaghdadAnhar Sami Al-Bankani, childNofal Adel Hajwal, child, BaghdadSamer Sabih Neema HelielSinan Yas Khthier, BaghdadHala Asaad Al-Sayfee, child, BaghdadBasheer Metasher Sewan, BaghdadIbraheem Khalil Khalf Al-Asdy, BaghdadFawzy Mezban Faraj, BaghdadKareem Salman Areiby, BaghdadKheiam Raheem Zahron, December 12Kamal raed Sabri, a child kidnapped on 12 December 2004 in Al-Dura, Baghdad. Kamal’smother died as a result.Rawan Raed Sabri, a child kidnapped on 12 December 2004 in Al-Dura, Baghdad Rawan’smother died as a resultHawazn Druied Sabri Darweesh, September 30th, BaghdadRami Nezar Yaser Sakar, child, BaghdadHayder Zamil Rathi, BaghdadRaed Jaseb Hathal Al-Zuhairy, BaghdadReyadh Dakhel Thamer Al-Khamesi, BasraFerace Atshan Bakhakh, BaghdadAdel Qadory Talal, BaghdadShaymaa Harab Neema Hashos, BaghdadFeras Moaaid, shot then kidnappedHamed Jabber Lazim Al-Saife, kidnapping attemptHussam Sadeq, BaghdadSadeq Majeed Daalag (40 yrs old), BaghdadAdel Hekmat Sadeq, BaghdadRam Khabel Atwan (12 yrs old) kidnapping and force circumcision, November 11thSalah Rumi Rhaima, March 20th2005Newman Jabber Farmhand, Student, March 27th2005Shirk Bard Kumar, March 2005Basil Assam Latin, child, April 3rd2005Samia Audi Left, May 8th2005, Al Sader city, BaghdadJamal Nair Mohr, May 8th2005, Al Sader city, BaghdadSelah Malawi, May 8th2005, Al Sader city, BaghdadAnther Abdul Kari Atria, June 21st2005, BaghdadInsam Sachet (Miss), June 27th2005Muwafaq Ghayadh Jabir, June 27th2005Khalid Abed Al-Sadaha, freed November 10th, during his captivity he witnessed 3 beheadingsLeza Saffa Khairy, child, 24 May 2004, BaghdadMohanad Naim Ghlaim Jari (35 yrs old) kidnapped twice one of the incidents were on 25September 2004 in Al-Dura, BaghdadSaif Mahir Abdul-Saheb (12 yrs old), October 12 2004, BaghdadAlaa Samee Faraj (38 yrs old), July 7th, Baghdad
November 30 200948. Waleed Taih Sabri (19 yrs old), July 9th, BaghdadArdwan Ayad Athari Shnawah, September 24th2004, BaghdadBasher K. Alaway, BaghdadZaydon Khalid Khalel Mallah, BaghdadMazin Shneshel Talaa Al-Khamesi, BaghdadWesam Essam Abdullatif, child, April 3rd, BaghdadZamil O. Lafta Al-Zuhairy (56 yrs old), May 8th, BaghdadAnhr Latif Aouda Aziz, BaghdadNabil Zaki Mozan (40 yrs old), BaghdadRami Abdul Razaq Aroebi, BaghdadRafaat Raed Mereez Farag, September 11th, BaghdadKamal Ward Mansour, April 18th, BaghdadSaadia Abdullah Mozan (28 yrs old housewife), September 6th, BaghdadSarmad Qasem Nafil Wali (18 yrs old), October 19th, BaghdadMalik Marzok Kaban, January 18th, BasraMuneer Abdul-Wahed Yousif (50 yrs old), November 5th, BaghdadRaed Jamil Zarzor, June 25th2003, Abu Ghraib, near BaghdadTaghreed Fadhel Muslem, BaghdadEvan Nadeem Fazaa (28 yrs old), September 13th, BaghdadAbdul Sattar Faris Al-Suhaily (65 yrs old), April 17th, BaghdadLaith Hady Jabek (35 yrs old), May 25th, BaghdadHadi Saad Salman (47 yrs old), June 19th, BaghdadAbady Neema, BaghdadSuoad Hatab Sahar (40 yrs old Housewife), January 20th, BaghdadOmar Katee Ajmy (21 yrs old), September 6th, BaghdadLatifa O. Aziz (42 yrs old Housewife), September 10th, BaghdadRamez Jamal Salman Saeed (20 yrs old), August 16th, BaghdadOmar Wasfi Jari (19 yrs old), August 25th, BaghdadSarmad Sameer Jabar Abdul-Nabi (39 yrs old), August 20th, BaghdadAdel Aiesh Fatah, August 9th, BaghdadSafaa Desher Zamil (42 yrs old), May 25th, BaghdadKahtan Amer Jabber (68 yrs old), September 26th, BaghdadDalia faisal aboud (30 yrs old Housewife), September 18th, BaghdadEssa Abady Faleh (38 yrs old), October 10th, BaghdadBassam Fawzi Naeem (30 yrs old), August 19th, BaghdadMukhlad Raheem Kashkol, July 17th, BaghdadMaha Saleem Hamady Aboid, a female, 2004, BaghdadAseel Thameen Basher Sajet, a female, October 20th2004 in Al-Mansour, BaghdadKhalid Layoos Afn Al-Athmani, BaghdadAhmad Mahir Sheck Abdullah Al-Shieckh Yahya, BaghdadBasher Hanon Al-Kelani (60 yrs old), November, BaghdadHelen Ahad Bader, BaghdadGhassan Shabeb Dhayef Al-Fregy, BaghdadWaleed Khalid Abdul-Sada Al-Sabri, BaghdadJabar Nasir Thabet Al-Khamesi (50 yrs old), BaghdadAli Basem Talib Abd Nasir (15 yrs old), Abu-Ghraib, BaghdadLina Aos Anees Amour, a child, BaghdadMaha Kareem Kargy Yasin (16 yrs old) female, BaghdadAnmar Hafeth Dawood Nafel (18 yrs old), September, Abu-Ghraib, BaghdadKhalid Akram Khalid Mohy (30 yrs old), July 6th, Ramadee provinceSaleem Hajool Al-Chuhaily (56 yrs old) June 1st, 2005, Ramadee provinceAlaa Atee (52 yrs old), September 6thAbdul-Jabbar Khalaf Al-Meaanawi (38 yrs old), January 4th2006 , BaghdadIntesar Saad Salman, September 12, BaghdadInas Saady Jabar, August 29th, Baghdad.Ahmad Zaki Al-Mendawy, Baghdad.
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Ibtesam Jouda, kidnapped in 2004 , BaghdadAmal Majeed Meklef, 2004 in BaghdadBushra Hamody Meklef, May 24th, BaghdadJwan Reyadh Hady, 2004 BaghdadJouda Shenan Al-Bregy, June 23rd, 2004 BaghdadRaed Kamel Taih, December 11th, 2004, Baghdad.Souad Hatab Sahar, October 20th, Baghdad.Sameer Harby Sabty, September 26th, Baghdad.Senan Khazal Atia, BaghdadTaif Khalel Ibraheem, June 23rd, BaghdadAoroba Jameel Aziz (miss), August 22nd, Baghdad.Abdul-Wahab Saad Abdul-Wahab, 2004, BaghdadOhood Mwafq Maky, kidnapped in 2005 in BaghdadEtab Najy Farhan, May 10th, BaghdadMushreq Abdul-Razaq Adam, August 20th, Al-Muthana provinceMethaq Abdul-Wahed Shenshel, August 14th, Baghdad.Majed Katee Yousif, BaghdadMelad Oday Yousif, Thi Qar provinceMazin Myaser Mahdy, February 22nd, BaghdadMansour Jabar Mansour and wife, 2005, BaghdadNashwan Kahtasn Amer, September 18th, BaghdadAwras Abdul-Satar Faris, August 25th, BaghdadAbdul-Wahab SaeedSenan KhazaalTaif Khalil, June 23rd, 2004Yohana Abdul KathemHayder Zamil RatheRam WasfiRaed JasebRafy NezarYahya KathemAziz SanhourAfyaa Nory raseadAnsar MnadyShaheed KareemAseel Basher, October 20th, 2004Muthafer HalbosNajwan Jabber Farhan, March 27th2005Emad Jabar Khalaf, January 4th, 2006, BaghdadAsmah Qasem Nafee, October 21st, 2005Ban Toma Zaki, May 2005, BaghdadSuha Lateef Raheem July 2nd, 2004Lez Safaa Khairy, May 24th, 2004Laith Bassam Husny, September 2nd, 2004Mahdy Sabah Helo, kidnapped and attempt to murderBasim Essam Lateef, April 3rd, 2005Mohammad Saleem Hamady, October 27th, 2004Hanaa G. NajimBahaa Amen Shnawa, January 7th, 2006Sami Kareem Taresh, December 29th2005, BaghdadDhafer Al-Zohairy, February 12 2006, Al-Ramady provinceFareed Atia Al-Khamesy, February 12 2006, Al-Ramady provinceJabar Al-Mesodnay, March 2nd2006Hamody Metasher, April 2nd2006Susan Aziz Sayhood (Mrs), baby son and mother in law Rabeeaa Gea’as kidnapped in April 06 inBaghdad, they were assaulted and beaten up which let to the death of the baby
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Arslan Atif Abdul-Raheem, May 1st2006Leaby Thamer Al-Kalmashi, May 10th2006Maytham Jabar Mutar, May 14th2006Yahya Mohammewd Bayo, (child), May 17th2006, BaghdadAiad Tarik Galim, May 25th2006, BaghdadAdel Haider Shibeeb, May 27th2006, BaladrooseHadeel Tawfeeq Al- Geezani (miss), June 22nd2006Nael Al- Zuhairi & family, July 1st2006, Basra provinceAsa’d Sabah Salman Saadawi, July 10th2006, BaghdadSaeed Sabah, July 10th2006Sarmad Rajee Barghash, July 12 2006Muhamad Fahmi, July 14th2006, Al-MukhdadiaAbood Al-Zuhairy, July 18th2006Ra’ad Shatan, July 2006 on his way out to SyriaMuhanad Mishkal Al-Misodni, July 06, Basra provinceNadeg Ghazaal Hammady, July 19th2006Dheyaa Yasir Mauhey, July 27th2006, Deyala provinceRaad Matar Faleh, Seweara, shot and injuredKamil Noori Al-kuhaily, August 2006, Basra provinceSarah Sadi Muslim (15 yrs old), August 2006, SyriaDr. Nisreen Abd Al-Lateef Jaleel, a Dentist kidnapped onAugust 7th2006 in Baghdad, attempt tokidnapped and killingNashwan Sameer Dehrab, August 10th2006, BaghdadBasil Humam Abd Al-Ghani, August 13th2006, BaghdadSalwan Sameer Dahrab, August 17th2006, BaghdadMubarak Hameed Mageed, August 23rd2006, BaghdadSon of Mr. Diyaa Noori Nasir Shiltagh Al-Musoodni, a young man kidnapped on August 28th2006 inBaghdad, kidnapped and threaten to be killed, but survive the incident. His father a University lecturerpassed a way as a result of the chock.Sami Glass Al-Mandawi, August 29th2006, Kut provinceWajdy Abd Al-Jabar Munhal, September 5th2006Firas Shaker GhlaeemNassir Hantoosh Eedan Al- Mihana, September 5th2006Kamal Fakhri and Son Suroor, September 17th2006, on their way to SyriaKusai Saeed Salih, September 29th2006, Heat CityMuhanad Wesam Sami, September 29th2006, Heat CityJasim Rashid Al-Zuhairy, October 1st2006, Baghdad Kidnapped after being shot in his backNasrat Abdul jabber Dhamad, October 1st2006, BaghdadAyar Sattar Fadhil, Basra provinceLouay Haraj Madlool Al-Suhairy kidnapped on October 22nd2006 on the way SyriaSafaa Sauri Zagi Al-Khamisi, November 16th2006, BaghdadHamid Abood Fandi, November 16th2006, BaghdadRashad Jabar Khalaf, November 16th2006, BaghdadLouay Akram Hayder Hazim 18 yrs old student kidnapped, assaulted, circumcised by force andthreatened to kill his family, then released after paying ransomSadik Abid Allah Jabar Al-Kulmishi and brother, November 29th2006, BaghdadJamal Warid Mansour Al-Muhana (48 yrs old), December 2nd2006, Thee-qar provinceKareem Jabbar Al- Mihanna, December 4th2006, BaghdadLouay Sauri Zagi Al-Khamisi, December 2006, BaghdadFeras Sallom AlShaikh Farag (43 yrs old), December 23rd2006, BaghdadFaris Aomara Al-Mandawi, January 2007, Diyala provinceTwo daughter to Hamil Musha’l Lazim’s family age 14 &16, January 3rd2007, ShahrabanSabah Suhail Al-Mhanawi, January 8th2007, BaghdadMahmood Shukry Johar, January 11th2007, BaghdadRasha Thaer (Miss), January 12th2007, BaghdadDiyaa Hasson Bakhal, January 13th2007, Baghdad
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Faris Al-Kuhaili, January 15th2007Husam Zaki Al-Sheikh Khazaal, January 15th2007, BaghdadFaris Emara Al-Mandawi, January 17th2007, Diyala ProvinceMaytham Abd Al-Razzak Talib Al-Kulmishi, January 25th2007 BaghdadFamily of young Mandaean Saadi Majed Hazim Al-Sabery disappeared on the way to Dewaniyaon January 27th2007, which includeMum Layla SaeedWife; Azhar Atwan Shareef Al-GailaniSon; Ahmed Saadi Al-SaberyDaughters; Sara Saadi Al-SaberyMaryam Saadi Al-SaberyNarjes Saadi Al-SaberyEsam Aasif Aziz Lamy, January 30th2007Jasim Rashid Mansoor Al-Zuhairy, February 2nd2007, BaghdadTahseen Abdullah Abid Shindy, February 3rd2007, Ramadi provinceAbid Al-Sahib Dawood Nafil kidnapped on February 3rd2007, released after paying $20,000Husham Jasim Shawi Al-Kalmishi, February 4th2007, BaghdadTahseen Satar Helal, February 11th2007, BaghdadDhafir Jasib Hathal, February 11th2007, BaghdadRana Hellael Al-Zuhairy (miss), February 26th2007, BaghdadSheikh Munther Leelo (religious leader) kidnapped by Al-Mahdi army; they has his hair cut andhis beard shaved by force then on March 1st2007 he was hit by explosive in Baghdad and had toundertake a major surgery as a resultSalwan Adel Abid Al-Sattar (17 yrs old), March 1st2007, BaghdadNisreen Abadi Hattab kidnapped on March 3rd2007 by militant in Al-Mansoor district, Baghdadwhile going to work then released after paying ransomSaad Auda Zghair Al-Khamisi, March 8th2007, BaghdadAbdul Kareem Mutashar Sbahi Al-gaelani, March 10th2007Ihsan Nasrat Bahoor kidnapped on April 2007 in Al-Mansoor district, Baghdad, but manage toescape his capturesMaged Sabri Bahidh Al-Furaegi, April 25th2007, BaghdadHumam Abid Al-Jabbar Abbod Dummad, April 30th2007, BaghdadSon to Adel Abed Al-Sattar (17 yrs old), BaghdadThaer Ibrahim Sabti Sahar, May 8th2007, BaghdadFeras Auoda Gurry (born 1977), May 17th2007, BaghdadMunther Azzawi, May 17th2007, BaghdadRanya Atheer, a female, BaghdadSaad Jabbar Salih kidnapped by militant on May 22nd2007 in Al-Doora district, Baghdad,released after paying ransomKhalid Mura’z AlKhamisi, May 24th2007, BaghdadRami Raheem Jaralla Manhoosh Al-Sabty, May 28th2007, Basra provinceIhsan Jallawi (born 1981), June 9th2007, BaghdadMua’taz Aziz Mageed Layeth kidnapped on June 18th2007 by militants in Al-Doora district,Baghdad. He was tortured and released on June 20th2007 after paying ransom and they threatenthe family not to return to their houseSuhail Gani Al- Nashi, June 2007, BaghdadTalib Jaloob Al-Shaikh Jitheer kidnapped by militant on June 21st2007 in Al-Doora district,Baghdad, released after paying ransomFadhil Rasham, July 9th2007, BaghdadAli Abdul Khalik Abdullah (10 yrs old), July 24th2007Malik Aziz Al-Suhali, August 1st2007, BaghdadNibras Noori Sabti Sahar (Miss), October 10th2007Emad Aziz Khasaf, October 24th2007, BaghdadDr. Asaad Jabbar Al-Nashi kidnapped by militants on November 5th2007 in Al- Saidia,Baghdad, tortured and then released after paying ransomTahseen Sattar Al-Zuhairy, December 12 2007 , Baghdad
November 30 2009257.258.259.260.
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Muhanad Lateef, December 27th2007, BaghdadAyad Araak Muzher kidnapped on January 10th2008 then released on October 14thafter payingransomAyad Farhan Al-Khamisi born 1984 kidnapped on January 2008 between Iraq and Kuwait andtortured for a whole week then released after paying $50,000 ransomFadaa Shukry Bader (Mrs) a 29 yrs old together with 4 yrs old daughter Ameera Asaad and twoand a half yrs old son Ameer Asaad kidnapped in Al-Saidia, Baghdad on April 14th2008, familymanaged to secure the release of Fadaa and her daughterDeyaa Talib Muhyee Al-Khamisi kidnapped on April 21st2008 in Al- Sha’ab district, Baghdad,released after paying ransomAbdullah Muhabis Ghaiad kidnapped on April 29th2008 by militant in Al- Sha’ab district,Baghdad, released on May 3rd2008 after paying ransomSaeed Ghareeb Al-Khafagi kidnapped on May 13th2008 in Al-Saidia district, Baghdad andtortured, finally released after paying ransomJasib Mehawi Sailan kidnapped on June 18th2008 by militant in Al- Thawra district, Baghdadwhile leaving workBahram Hakeem Noori Al-Dehasi 18 yrs old Mandaean kidnapped on July 08 by militant in Al-Zubair, Basra, $150000 ransom has been demanded for his releaseSa'ad Fakher Herez, agoldsmithkidnapped on September 25th2008 in Al Hossinia district,Baghdad and released on 26thafter paying ransomAsa’d Abd Al-Zahra Abdullah kidnapped on December 7th2008 in Al Habebia then released inthe same day11 yrs old boy Saeed Mazin Saeed kidnapped on March 10th2009 close to his house inPhalestine street, Baghdad then released after paying $25,000 ransomYoung Mandaean Rami Mu’een Jasim kidnapped on May 7th2009 in Baghdad Al-Jadedadistrict, Baghdad after shooting his dad few times. Rami was released by Police patrol who waspassing the seen by considentAnsam Mubarak Muhalhel (Mrs) kidnapped on June 5th2009 from Phalestine street, Baghdadtogether with her 11 yrs old Son Saeed who has been kidnapped before on March 10th2009 (see269 above)Both realsed two weeks later after paying $40,000 ransom. The woman and her son had beentourtured beaten and her body and face was cut by razor.Kamel Henady kidnapped by gang consists of 4 militants on October 31st2009 from Hay AlAmel, Baghdad. Released after being assaulted and beaten
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Threats and Assaults1.In different areas in Iraq (both Shiaa and Suni areas) like Sadr City in Baghdad (Shiaa area),Falluja (Suni area) and Basra (mixed), during the Friday mosque sermon, extremist clerics havedeclared that it is religiously acceptable to attack and loot the property of the “infidels” as longas part of the loot is given for the “Islamic cause”.May 2003: The arson of the alcohol brewery and looting of belongings of Salam Ajil Shahir’s inBaquba city.May 7th2003: The Mandaean community in Baghdad was terrified by the brutal attack on Mr.Mahir Sherad Zebala, his pregnant wife and their four children ages 10, 7, 4, and 2 in their housein Saidia, Baghdad by thugs shouting religious slurs against the Mandaean religion.The burning of a house and personal property in Hawijah, Kirkuk. This act of arson resulted inthe murder of a handicapped 23-year-old Mandaean girl who was unable to flee the house.April through June of 2003 saw the destruction of homes and businesses with explosives inSowerah, Kut. The criminals who committed these bombing attacks were well-known Muslimextremists from the area. The following is a list of the victims:1)Haitham Faiqe Al Othmani, April 20th20032)Raad Mutar Falih Al Othmani, June 13th20032)Ehsan Faiqe Al Othmani, June 15th20033)Qaise Tua’mah Al Othmani, June 20th20034)Abdullah Menkhi Al Chohaili, June 20th2003The houses of Fadhel Muhannawi Al Chuhaily and Kamil Gonfuth Al Chuhaily were damagedby two separate grenade attacks on June 10th2003. The residents were asked to move out of thearea or be killed.A bomb was detonated at the house of Halima Fadhel Gzar on June 10th2003 in Kadessia City.When the bomb failed to do the expected damage, machine gun fire riddled the house anddestroyed it.Sam Hannon Al Othmani was assaulted by gunshots on June 15th2003 in Sowerah, southBaghdad.Karim Askar Al Othmani was assaulted by mobs accusing him of practicing ‘Magic’, June 26th2003, Sowerah south Baghdad.Jabbar Muhattam suffered gunfire and destruction of the contents of his store. This act wascommitted by unknown person(s); the excuse given for the assault was ‘the selling of alcoholicdrinks’.Both Sheikh Karim Selman Uraibi and his brother Talib suffer an armed assault with an attemptto murder on July 2ndfor being Mandaean priests.Six Mandaean jewellery stores were damaged by gunfire on a single night in Sadr City. Theoriginal intent was to kill the owners. The following statement was written on one of the sixstores: “Your day is coming sub’ba!” Sub'ba (Subi) is a name used quite frequently by the localMuslims instead of the term Mandaean.Attaching of leaflets in the jewelry shopping center of Al Jamhuria City in Basra in which theMandaeans are accused of Magic and fornication, then threatened with severe punishment soon.Yosif Beshir Gatea and Behjet Frhan Gatea were physically assaulted, and their jewelry storewas looted on July 3rdin Habibia, Baghdad. The incident happened with the use of grenades andin front of crowds.Mrs. Rafah Dawod Selman was assaulted; a payment of ransom was demanded. She was alsothreatened to be killed in case she does not move out.Mr. Salam Sabri was assaulted and robbed at gunpoint in front of witnesses, July 7th2003,Karada, Baghdad. The act was combined with the use of ethnic and religious slurs.Mr. Basim Mohi’s son was kidnapped, Basra. The kidnappers demanded a ransom. He wasreleased with the help of the British forces. Soon after the boy was returned, the kidnappersterrorized the family again this time with messages that all “Sb’ba” (Mandaeans) would die. Thefamily escaped the area.Armed attack was perpetrated on Tarmetha Muthana Majeed Glas’s house on January 7th2005.Glas is a Mandaean priest.
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Armed attack was perpetrated on Salem Turfi Aziz’s house in Kirkuk on January 10th2005. Azizis the head of the Mandaean Community in Kirkuk.Armed attack was perpetrated on Naseer Jasim Dhamin's house on January 20th2005. Dhaminwas shot and badly injured.Aseel Raad Fayadh was shot and badly injured on January 29th2005 in Al-Saidyah, Baghdad.Armed attack was perpetrated on Adel Dishar Zamil's house in Kut province on March 23rd2005. Zamil is the head of the Mandaean Community in Wasit. A threat was written on the maindoor of the house stating, "You infidels, pay the tribute, or you will be killed.".Engineer Akram Salman's family was attacked by unknown persons on May 26th2005. His wife,three months pregnant, was badly beaten and lost her unborn child. His son Sinan waskidnapped.Rumi Rhaima's house was attacked on June 10th2005. His pregnant daughter-in-law EmanKraidy Rhaima was badly beaten and lost her unborn child.Adel Aziz Khisaf's shop was robbed on June 13th2005. He had refused to pay the Mujahideen(an extremist Islamic group). His shop was destroyed and his life threatened.Khalid Akram Khalid was robbed and badly beaten, July 16th2005, Anbar province.Fadhil Khalawi was robbed and badly beaten, July 24th2005, Basra province.Jameel Jebr was robbed and badly beaten, July 24th2005, Basra province.Dr. Hamed Baheth Kazar (Dentist), killing threat, September 1st2005, Dura, BaghdadYahya Reyadh Hekmat, Shooting, Student, August 20th2005, Al-Bayaa, Baghdad.Salman Helo Hekmat (Goldsmith), killing threat, February 22nd2005, Al-Bayaa, Baghdad.Emad Younis Sarhan (TV. Director), threat, July 13th2005.Dr. Sarmad Haleem Barakat (Surgeon), threat of killing, April 4th2005 & July 10th2005, Al-Karkh Hospital, because he is Mandaean infidel.Adel Ibraheem Adm (Goldsmith), killing threat, looting, August 6th2005, Goldsmith market,Baaqoba province.Rabha Baaio Subeh (working at Air Port), threat, Al-Qadesia, Baghdad.Saad Amarah Amthael (Goldsmith), threat, May 3rd2005, Al-Thawra, Baghdad, abandon hishouse because of the threat.Waseem Balasem Naeem (4thyear Medical student), threat, October 2005, Al-Ramady province.Salam Waeel Al-Mubarky (Goldsmith), threat and shot at while at his Shop, November 27th2005, Al-Shorta, Baghdad.Khazaal Sabah Zemam Al-Zuhairy (Goldsmith), killing threat, August 14th2005, Baghdad.Marleen Reyadh Hekmat (Employee at The Interir Ministry), killing threat, August 20th2005,Al-Bayaa, Baghdad.Saad Amarah Nafel, threat, August 5th2005, Al-Thawara, Baghdad.Adnan Jabar Helo, brother to Sect Chief, threat, 2005, Baghdad.Dr. Zeiad Abdul-Kareem Al-Sayfi (Dentist), killing threat and instructed to close his Clinicbecause he is Mandaean, 2005, Baghdad.Salah Yousif Naseem, killing threat and shot at while he was home, September 30th2005, Dura,Baghdad.Mejbel Jabar Helo, brother to the Sect Chief, attack.Raed Zahron Shalash (Goldsmith), received killing threat along with his family, October 14th2004, Al-Bayaa, BaghdadSatar Kredy Rahema (Pharmacist), threat and attack burning his Pharmacy, October 28th2004,Abu Desher, BaghdadKherallah Zahron Meaarg (religious leader), Attack, 2004, BaghdadAdel Talib Abdullah (Goldsmith), threat, November 7th2004, Abu Ghareeb, BaghdadZoher Raheem Dawwod (Goldsmith), threat Paper delivered and shot at while he was home,November 10th2004, Abu Ghareeb, BaghdadSabah Mahdy Jelab (Goldsmith), He had to leave his house after receiving threats to save hislife, BaghdadSalam Zarzor Wady (Goldsmith), attacking his house forcing the family to leave the area wherethey live, November 11th2004, Abu Ghareeb, BaghdadZahron Khalaf Khayon (Goldsmith), threat either to pay Ransom or change religion, 2004,Baghdad
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Satar Talib Nasir (Goldsmith), threat, 2004, BaghdadWaeel Salman Dawwod (Goldsmith), threat & attack, November 2004, Abu Ghareeb, BaghdadZaki Mubark Masbob (Goldsmith), threat, September 8th2004, Abu Ghareeb, BaghdadFahmy Shanan Helo (Goldsmith), threat, 2004, BaghdadMajed Saad (Goldsmith), threats forcing to change his Religion, 2004, BaghdadSabah Helo Bander (Goldsmith), threat and burglary to his Shop, 2004, BaghdadThamer Jabber Shamkhy (Goldsmith), threat, 2004, BaghdadMajed Naser Ayesh (Goldsmith), threats forcing him to change his religion and shop burgled,2004, Baghdad,Salwan Hejan (Goldsmith), threats forcing him to change his religion, 2004, BaghdadZahron Khalaf khayon (Goldsmith), killing threat, 2004, Baghdad and threats against his SonsAyad & EmadRaad Jabar Helo (Goldsmith), threat, 2004, Baghdad because he is the brother of the Sect ChiefJameel Saad Helo (Goldsmith), threat, 2004, BaghdadSaleem Jyad Al-Msodny (Goldsmith), killing threat, 2004, BaghdadBasher Mohsen Aouda (Goldsmith), attack & threat, 2005, BaghdadAnhar Nasir Lhd (Goldsmith), threat, October 23rd2004, BaghdadAyad L. Hassan, threat, 2004, BaghdadAzal Basim Abdul-Razak, threat, 2004, BaghdadAram Essam Khalid, threat, 2004, BaghdadUsamah Ramzy Mubark, threat and shot at, 2004, BaghdadAkram Haleem Hindy, threat, 2004, BaghdadAmal Aied Sajet, threat to change his Religion, 2004, BaghdadAdryan Oday Yousif, threat, 2004, BaghdadAyad Jabar Khalf, killing threat, 2004, BaghdadBasim Abdul-Razaq kased, threat and attack on his house, 2004, Baghdad,Dr. Adel Lazim Meshaal Al-Khamesi (University Lecturer), attak & threat, , December 8th2004,Al-Saidia, BaghdadBasher Abdul Mone’m,, threat, 2004, BaghdadIhab Jabar Khalaf, threat, 2004, BaghdadTaghreed L. Khalaf, threat, 2004, BaghdadHamed Mejbel Hamad, threat, 2004, BaghdadHaleem Hindy Batty, killing threat which made Haleem leaving the city, 2004, Basra province,Reported to Al-Basra PoliceHazim Kamel Waste, threat which made Hazim leaving the city, 2004, Babylon provinceJalal Anees Amor, threat, November 1st2004, Baghdad, his Brother Layeth killed at DyalaBridgeJabber Shamkhy Jabber, threat, 2004, BaghdadKhalid Mejbel Jabar, threat, 2004, BaghdadKhalid Saad Salman, threat paper passed to his house, 2004, BaghdadYousif Sajet Sahar, threat, BaghdadZaki Mubark Jabber, threat, BaghdadZohair Raheem Dawood, killing threat, November 10th2004, Baghdad, reported at Abu-GhareebPolice StationShaker Jawad Thamer, attack & threat, BaghdadSalah Bahjet Sharmoukh, threat, BaghdadSafaa Desher Zamil, threat, July 4th2004, Baghdad, reported at Al-Bayaa Police StationRaed Zedan Manee, threat, BaghdadRabha Abed Sahar, threat, BaghdadRaheem Zamil Rashed, threat, BaghdadRafed Zedan Manee, threat, BaghdadRafed Mjbel Hamd, threat, BaghdadAmjad Hamel Meshaal Al-Khamesi, threat, December 2004, BaghdadDhyaa Mubark Amarah, threat, BaghdadGhania Jabar Karlos, threat, BaghdadHesham Nasir Majeed, threat, Baghdad
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Haytham Abdul Kareem Khalaf, threat, BaghdadRamzy Faeeq Khrebit, threat, BaghdadRafid L. Hasan, threat, BaghdadRamzya Al-Sabri, threat, BaghdadRaed M. Jabar, threat, BaghdadRaed Zahron Shalsh, threat, October 14th2004, Baghdad, reported to Al-Bayaa Police StationSaad Abdul-Ameer Kmeer, killing threat, BaghdadSalman Saeed Abdul-Sada, Threat, BaghdadSam Essam Khalid, threat, BaghdadSawsan Talib Abdul-Sada, threat, BaghdadWael Hazim Meshaal, threat, November 2005, Al-Mechanic district, BaghdadFaris Hamd Salman, threat, BaghdadFeras M. Fadhel, threat, BaghdadSalwan Jamil Hadher, threat and house was attacked by Al-Mahdy army, June 1st2004,BaghdadKahtan Amer, threat, September 28th2005, Baghdad, reported at Al-Bayaa Police StationKamer W. Kmeer, threat, BaghdadKareem Enessi zajy, killing threat, attempt to kidnap and robbery, April 25th2005, BaghdadSaadon Asaad Jabber, threat, BaghdadSouzan Aness Khamas, threat, October 25th2004, Baghdad, reported at Al-Karkh Police StationSundis Kerjy Yasin, threat, August 16th2005, BaghdadMajeed Nasir Kaban, threat, 2005, Basra province, reported at Al-Zubeer Police StationMekhled Raheem Kashkol, robbery & threat, July 28th2005, Baghdad, reported at Al-BayaaPolice StationMahdy Sabah Helo, kidnapping threat and attempt of Circumcision by force, BaghdadMajed Jamil Zebalah, attack, BaghdadMohmaed A. Kmar, kidnapping threat, BaghdadMohammed Kabashy Shenan, kidnapping threat, BaghdadMazin Abdul-Wahab, attack and arrestting his Son, BaghdadAbdul Satar Faris Al-Suhaily, kidnapping threat, April 7th2005, Baghdad, reported at Al-BayaaPolice StationAbeer Jasim Saad, robbery & threat, BaghdadMoaaid Saeed Jouda, kidnapping threat, threat Paper passed to his house, BaghdadMejbil K. Sehiem, attack, BaghdadMushtak Fakhry Khalaf, kidnapping threat, BaghdadAbady Neema, threat, BaghdadAbdul-Kareem Harbi Darweesh, threat, BaghdadEmad L. Hasan, threatened because he was a witness to killing incident , BaghdadEssam khalid Khalef, threat, BaghdadAdel Hekmat, threat, BaghdadAbdul Khaleq Shareef No’man, threat, BaghdadAkeel Hayder Heliel, threat, BaghdadAbdul-Wahab Razoky Hamid, threat, BaghdadAbdul-Kareem Tawfeeq, threat, BaghdadAlaa Mubark Amarah, threat, BaghdadOday Yousif Sajet, threat, BaghdadLaith Hady Jabek, threat & attack, Baghdad, reported at Al-Rafdyen Police stationLaws Adwar Hasan, threat, BaghdadLelo Al-Sabri, threat, BaghdadNabeel Saad Sharad, threat, BaghdadNasem Farhan Halob, threat, BaghdadNaghem Sami Flefel, threat, BaghdadNaser Shenan Helo, threat, BaghdadNasser Mjbel Jabar, threat, BaghdadWasfi Madlol Nooman, threat, BaghdadWesam Majed Saeed, threat, Baghdad
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Wasfi Jabar Jary, threat, August 25th2005, Baghdad, reported at Al-Qudes Police stationWaleed Kamel Taieh, threat, July 10th2005, Balatt Al-Shohadaa, Baghdad,Basem Waham Kmer, threat, 2004, BaghdadRedsm Ibraheem Flefel, threat, BaghdadFares Khalid Khalaf, threat & attack, BaghdadJehad Bajay Sahar, threat & attack, Al-MeqdadaihLuay J. Aouda, threatReyadh J. Aouda, threatMajeed Naser Kaban, threat & attackedHasan Raheem, shot at, Al-Swera, south BaghdadMushtaq Kredy Rahema, threat either to be killed , pay ransom or close his Shop downSundus Nasier Mshet, attempt to kidnap children because her husband refused to converted toIslamAfrah Sami Shamekh, threat either to pay ransom or will be kidnapped, 2004, BaghdadEssam Abdul-Lateef Jalel, kidnapping threatAdel Nasry Zarzor, threat to bomb his houseWesam Majed Saeed, threatBan Malik Aziz (miss), threat, 2004, BaghdadZiad Saleem Hamady, threat, December 8th2005Sabah Meedy Thamer, threatNasir Shenan Helo, threatAbdul-Kareem Tawfeq, threatFeras Majid Fadhel, threatAkram Haleem Hendy, threatLuay Zahron Habeb, threatSaad Abdul-Raheem Kmaer, threatUsamah Hameed Zaki, threat and persecutionLaith Zaki Mouzan Al-Khamesi, attempt to kill him by his front door, August 27th2005Ammar Raad Tarish Al-Saify, received threat, March 25th2006 because he works for the Mandiand had to leave Iraq for safety.Nadiq Abudul wahed Rumman, received threats by form of text all around the school he workedin, April 30th2006, Saydia, BaghdadAll Goldsmiths in Hay Al-Ammel, Baghdad received a printed threat, May 12 2006, a copy ofthis threat is available.Shekh Satar Jabar Hillo, the leader of Mandaeans handed a printed threat by hand in the Mandi ,, May 24th2006Many area of Baghdad received threat on May 29th2006 demanding Mandaeans to leave theCountry to the south of Iran, a copy of this threat is availableKhalida Salim Galhoom (Mrs) with four young children living in al-Doora, Baghdad, threatenedon May 30th2006 to be killed all if her children do not start praying in the Mosque. The familymoved to hiding and then received help and left Iraq.Ghazi Shaty Al-Khamisi, received threat on June 19th2006 together with his father and childrenafter attacking their house, burning their two cars and wounding his father all because they areMandaeans.Husam Leaaby Thamir, shot in the leg in attempt to kill him, July 06 in Al- Sadir City, BaghdadSheikh Satar Jabar Hillo, the leader of Mandaeans and his brother attacked and threaten bygunmen at a gun point in Baghdad on July 6th2006, tens of shot fired at his car, they weredetained for more than 3 hours and were assaulted personally and his religion, then they took hismobile phone and all his I.D.Ahmed Saeed Ghathban, threatened to leave work or be killed as he used to work for the Iraqipolice force. Mr Ghathban has received threatening notes with 2 bullets on July 12 2006. MrGhathban has currently changed his residential address as he is scared for his own life as well asfor his family.Rafed Shaker Saleh Al-Khamesi, threatSuaood Aziz Jabbar Al-Suhaili, shot in the leg on August 3rd2006
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Family of Ghaiad Gadea, attacked by 3 gun men on September 3rd2006 and attempt kidnappingof Ghaiad sister and her husband Salam (a religious leader)Few Mandaean’s shops in Baghdad, Hay Al- Ammel were attacked on September 5th2006 withno casualties reported.Yass Haleem Shaalan Al-Muhanawi, injured with his wife Jehan Saliem Abed Wadi inMahmoodia as a result of attack by mortar attack on October 10th2006Basheer Khandeel Auofy Lafta Al-Zuhairi, injured with relative Salim Sabeeh Shafeek Lafta Al-Zuhairi in area called Suwaib by mortar attack on October 17th2006, Shrapnel still in bothbodies.Dakhil Muhalhil Thamir Al-Othmani, seriously injured by exploded car in Al-Huria district,Baghdad on October 18th2006, he lost one leg, an eye and one Ear.Feras Saleem Mohy (Goldsmith), looting his Money and his Jewellery, BaghdadSalam Sabri, BurglaryEmad Raheem, threatened and Car stolen on July 13th2004Talib Kredy Rahma, his Shop burgled, taking all ContentsKareem Mal Allah, burglaryAdam Al-Shiekh Khalaf, seizing his house, shooting at and stole his car, money and JewelleryMeklaf Zahrawy, looting attempt and shot at by GangHameed Zaki Silan (Religious Man), burglary then forced to leave his house. Which later seizedwhile was in JordanAbed Wahwah Al-Nashee (retired teacher), threatened and attacked his house with hand Bombwhich damage front of the house in Baghdad, so he fled to JordanLeaby Hasan Meejel, attacking his house, May 8th2004, Baghdad. They invad his house onceagain in Al-Faloja on December 28th2004 so he forced to escape from Iraq.Abdul-Karim L. Hasan (Goldsmith), attacking his house, May 8th2004, Baghdad, the attackersthreat and beaten his motherRaed L. Hasan, (Goldsmith), his house has been attacked on May 8th2004 in Baghdad, theattackers threat and beaten his motherNadheer Khather, his house has been seizedAbdul-Kareem Darwesh, burglary stole his money and Jewellery on April 3rd2004Tahsen Mezher Jebara, Goldsmith, Baghdad, invaded his house and stole his car on June 2nd2004Jabar Aouda Sharif, Goldsmith, Basra, attacked and stole his Shop on June 29th2002Saeed Ghareb Sahi, invaded his house and burnt his carAdel Haider Shibeeb (Goldsmith), looting all content of his shop by gunmen wearing policeuniform on May 27th2006, BaladrooseZiad Saleem Hamady (Goldsmith), looting his Jewellery and threat, June 25th2005, BasraprovinceDr. Ziad Faraj Adam (Dentist), Burning and destruction of all contents of clinic which rangefrom medical equipments and furniture as well as other contents, July 2nd2006, Al-Daura,BaghdadKamal Abd Wahwah, his Car, money and jewellery has been stolen and he was beaten, BaghdadNawras A. Habib (Miss) injured as a result of attack to their house, October 13th2006, Al-Rafedaen district, BaghdadMandaean’s families received a threat on January 29th2007 in Suwaira south of BaghdadRamzi Adday Al-Zuhairy’s family received many threats by phone for arranging a funeral to himafter his assassination on February 5th2007Dr. Adnan Ni'ma Hassoon Al-nashi family received threat in Ba’aquba province in a form ofwarning letter, they did not take it seriously then they attacked by gunmen, but manage to escapetheir house leaving to the north of IraqDr. Adnan is a Vet; two of his sons are Pharmacist, a teacher, an Agriculturalengineer and a disabled son, three of them married with children, the family consist of:Dr. Adnan Ni'ma Hassoon al-NashiMrs. Ameera Abdul-razzaq Zamil Al-JabiryMs. Fathila Ni'ma Hassoon Al-NashiMr. Haithem Adnan Al-NashiMrs.Shahad Fa'aiz Disher Zamil Al-Jabiry
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Master Adam(Haithem son)Mr. Irfan Adnan Al-NashiMrs Zaghareed Khairy Abdul-razzaq Zamil Al-JaburMaster Yousuf(Irfan' s son)Mr. Mushtaq Adnan Al-NashiMrs. Suha Fa'aiz Disher Zamil Al-JabiryMiss. Rawan (Mushtaq' s daughter)Mr. Muhannad Adnan Al-NashiMr. Usama Adnan Al-NashiMukalad K. Saeed threatened on April 10th2007 in his residence in Baghdad to convert to Islamor leave the country then on April 20thhe arrested and taken to Husainea (place of Islamicworship) where he was assaulted and beaten hard for not taken threat seriously and have beentold to obey to their demands or bear the consequencesAfter the killing of Yahya Abadi Al-Uthmani on May 4th2007 in Nasiriya province and whilehis family and the Mandaean’s community were busy and moaning at funeral they received aletter of threat on May 12 2007 giving them 72 hours to leave the city or else.Few Mandaeans families received threats in Al-Doora, Baghdad and had to evict their houses:Jameel TawfeekSaad ShakheirSaad JameelTawfeek SaadJaleel ZahroonNajat Azeez Shadhar (Miss) lives in Baghdad; received threat in a form of warning letter onSeptember 1st2007 to convert to Islam within a week or face serious consequences, then noticedthat she was followed when going to work. The warning has been passed to her again by a formof reminder message by client using the Bank where she works. She left the house to SyriaFeras Tarik Barakat Roomi received threat to leave his job as engineer for Electricity board
RapeNames will be held for confidentiality. These cases represent the cases that were reported to us. Lots ofother cases go unreported. Most women interviewed by UNHCR who were kidnapped had also been rapedand otherwise ill-treated by their captors60..
SH. H. N. H, 20 yrs old University student, 2004, Baghdad Left IraqS.H.L, House Wife, April 7th2005, Baghdad Left IraqS. S.S. 38 yrs old House Wife, July 26th2005, Baghdad Left IraqF.F.N 40 yrs old House Wife, December 8th2004, Baghdad Left IraqR.M.E 28 yrs old worker In Parker Shop, April 2005, Baghdad Left IraqA.F.N, house wife, attacked & raped on June 21st2005, Baghdad Left IraqH.GH. N. 42 yrs old house wife raped & kidnapped on June 20th2004, Baghdad Left IraqE.B.AA., kidnapped & raped on December 25th2004, Baghdad, reported to Al-Yarmouk PoliceStation. Released after paying ransom of $10000.00DH.E.H 34 yrs old house wife raped & kidnapped on September 4th2005, Baghdad Left IraqD.F. a pregnant house wife kidnapped & raped on September 18th2005, Baghdad, reported toAl-Bayaa Police Station. Released after paying ransom In Sowerah,S. A. A. survived an attempt of rape.
TheGuidelines Relating to the Eligibility of Iraqi Asylum-Seekers October 2005issued by the United Nations HighCommissioner for RefugeesTUTUhttp://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/home/opendoc.pdf?tbl=RSDLEGAL&id=4354e3594UUTTPP
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Conversion to Islam by Force1. Farhan Katee, Al-Falluja beside her Sons: Sanaa Tahseen, Salwan Tahsen & HaninTahseenFeryal Farhan Katee, Al-Falluja beside her Sons and DaughterSenan Yasin, Al-Falluja beside his Sons and DaughterSarah Sabeh Sabri, Al-FallujaSalah Najy Shather, BaghdadNaseema Aoda, BaghdadFouad Farhan, Al-FallujaAdel Farhan, Al-FallujaAshraf Farhan Katee, Al-FallujaHasan Fazwzy, Al-FallujaSenan Hasan, Al-FallujaSawsan Hasan, Al-FallujaFalah Sabri, Al-FallujaIkhlas Farhan, Al-FallujaSalah Sabri, Al-FallujaAsaad Sabri, Al-FallujaYezen Sabri, Al-FallujaSatota Fenjan, Al-FallujaNedhal Ashor, Al-FallujaMay Ashor, Al-Falluja, beside her Daughters Noor , Mony & MeshmashHayat Zamil Sadeq, BaghdadNawal zaki Alwan, BaghdadSuha Shnawa edan, BaghdadNuha Shnawa edan, BaghdadMaha Shnawa edan, BaghdadAbd alghani Mankhi Flifl, AmmanSuaad Nori Mthni, Amman35 families were forced to convert to Islam in Al-Falluja. Had the Mandaeans not complied theywould have been forced out of Al-Falluja, leaving their children and belongings behind-(name removed for safety)--received threats to convert to Islam or be harmed by her MuslimsacquaintancesMembers of (name removed for safety) family and others who had witnessed his death werethreatened with their own deaths if they did not convert to Islam(name removed for safety) was threatened to convert to Islam or be kidnapped and then he waskidnapped on March 20th2005. His whereabouts are still unknown up to the preparation of thisreport(name removed for safety) was threatened to be killed along with her daughter (7 yrs) if she didnot convert to Islam. This action forced the woman to escape with her daughter out of the area.This happened in Sader City, and sector 31, BaghdadA letter signed by The Islamic Mujahideen Group and distributed to Mandaean houses andbusinesses in March 2005, demanded that all Mandaeans should either convert to Islam, leavethe country or be killed by the sword
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Forceful Displacement from Al-Ramady Area to Syria1. Zeghier Khafour, GoldsmithKareem Jouda Zeghier Khafor Al-KhamesiFares Jouda Zeghier Khafor Al-KhamesiHamed Jouda Zegier Khafour Al-KhamesiSami Naeem Ghafel Al-Khamesi, a GoldsmithEssam Sami Naeem Ghafel Al-KhamesiHusam Sami Naeem Ghafil Al-KhamesiHesham Sami Naeem Ghafil Al-KhamesiWesam Sami Naeem Ghafel Al-KhamesiZeida Khalid Mohy Al-Khamesi, a GoldsmithKhaldon Zeiad Khalid Mohy Al-KhamesiSarmad Zeiad Khalid Mohy Al-KhamesiAnwar Zeiad Khalid Mohy Al-KhamesiRaheem Flefel Fahad Al-Kuhily, GoldsmithFouad Raheem Flefel Fahad Al-KuhilyZeiad Raheem Flefl Fahad Al-KuhilyNehad Raheem Flefl Fahad Al-KuhilySabah Abbas Jabber Al-KhamesiNajy Abbas Jabber Al-Khamesi, a GoldsmithAther Abbas Jabber Al-KhamesiAsaad Aziz Dher Al-MsodanySalman Aziz Dher Al-MsodnaySaleem Hajol Saeed Al-Chuhaily, a GoldsmithLuay Saleem Hajol Saeed Al-ChuhailyThaer Jaaz Mhaws Al-ChuhailyAlla Atee Shabeb Al-KhamesiSalah Atee Shabeb Al-KhamesiMohand Wessam Sami Naeem Al-Khamesi
Forceful Displacement from Al-Ramady Area to Jordan1. Salih Mohy Kazar Al-Khamesi, GoldsmithNezar Moneem Salih Mohy Kazar Al-KhamesiShaker Salih Mohy Kazar Al-Khamesi, GoldsmithMahmoud Shaker Salih Mohy Kazar Al-KhamesiLaith Shaker Salih Mohy Kazar Al-KhamesiMuneer Salih Mohy Kazar Al-KhamesiAtheer Salih Mohy Kazar Al-KhamesiAhmad Saeed Salih Mohy Kazar Al-KhamesiLuay Salih Mohy Kazar Al-KhamesiThaer Tareq Khalid Mohy Al-KhamesiMahir Tareq Khalid Mohy Al-KhamesiKhalid Akram Khalid Mohy Al-KhamesiKarm Akram Khalid Mohy Al-Khamesi
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Other Incidents1.Muthana Dahyef Shaghi received threat to convert to Islam on January 05 then survived anassassination attempt together with his Brother Dr. Mua’taz resulting in injury. Dr. Mua’tazDahyef Shaghi granted asylum to Australia and Muthana left to Syria. On April 06 afterreturning to Iraq found out their house has been repossessed and looted then wife Susan AzizSayhood, a baby son and mother Rabeeaa Gea’as kidnapped assaulted and beaten up which let tothe death of the baby. Family left to Syria again on April 22nd2006Hayfaa Jabbar (Miss) survived kidnapping attempt because she was not wearing Hejab, manageto escape, but shot in the head by member of kidnapping militant which led to loosing right eyeand loosing eyesight to left eye, January 11th2007Sheikh Haytham Saleem Shaher survive assassination attempt because he was a religious leaderby attacking and destroying his house, January 26th2007, Saidiya, BaghdadMoneer & samir Thabet abid ordered to pay religious tax (Jizya) on February 1st2007, then theyordered to pay another 1.5 Million ID on February 10th2007 then after few days they ordered topay further 1.0 Million ID (Iraqi Dinar)Aziz Khassaf Al-Mandawi injured in explosion on February 4th2007 in Bayaa district, BaghdadZaki Abdul Raheem (born 06/07/1930) together with his wife Haseeba Aziz received a visit by 8masked militants on March 4th2007 at their house in Al-Doora district, Baghdad who orderedthem to leave their house, when Zeki asked why; they pointed a machine gun at his head sayingyou have one hour only to vacate the house because you are from the infidels and God asked tokill you. The family left their house with all belonges and went to live with relative in Al-Ealamdistrict. After few months family received another threat from militant called (Ansar Al-Islam)so they decided to leave to Syria. Zaki’s brother Nasha’t has been killed on August 13th2003 inBaghdadMunther Abid Rabba injured in car explosion in Al-Mutanabi Street Baghdad on March 2007Jehad Bakkal Khangar injured by mortar attack on his flat on March 18th2007 in Al- Yarmookdistrict, BaghdadFamily of late Riyadh Muhatam Al-Sheigh Yahya suffered damages to their house by mortarattack, March 28th2007, Al- Mowasalat district, BaghdadKareem Nagi Maruood family forced to leave and abandon their house on April 3rd2007 in Al-Doora district, Baghdad and moved to another area for safetyMokhalad Kabll Saeed Al-Salihy threatened on April 10th2007 in his residence in Baghdad toconvert to Islam or leave the country then on April 20thhe arrested by militants and taken toHusainea (place of Islamic worship) where he was assaulted and beaten hard for not taken threatseriously and have been told to obey to their demands or bear the consequencesAdnan Musa Shiltagh suffered head injures and taken to hospital due to car explosion in Al-Karrada district Baghdad on April 18th2007 further to plenty of damages to his shopEmad Shenshal Zagy suffered a gun shot injuries and a lot of damages to his car by the Mandi inQadisiya district, April 21st2007, BaghdadDaylona Auoda Rumaidh (Mrs) injured in two cars explosions on April 22nd2007 in Al- Ea’lamdistrict, BaghdadDr. Ibrahim Khamas Duma’d house and annex has been occupied by force on April 25th2007 inAl-Khadraa district, Baghdad and forced to sign a tenancy agreement under gun threat afterkidnapping his son in law Maged Sabri BahidhThe family evacuated from their house and told by gun men to announce that they are leavingthe country to live abroad and threatened to be killed if tell anybody about their ordealThe family had to leave all furniture and belongs behindNaba’a Ziyad Zaki a child born 2001 and Sister Saba’a born 2002 both injured by mortar attack,April 26th2007, Harithiya district, BaghdadWisam Sami has suffer a mortar attack on his residence in April 2007 in Al-Karrada, BaghdadYahya Jalal Aziz Khassaf a child shot in the hand, May 1st2007, Al-Saidia district, BaghdadRasheed Noori Jaber house burned by two mortar attacks on May 1st2007 causing severdamages making the house unfit and unsafe to live in, which force the family to move outAtshan Khashan injured by car explosion on May 22nd2007 in Al-Aamel district, BaghdadGhassan Ma’yoof shot and injured on May 25th2007 in Basra province
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Rami Jamal Mutar survived a kidnapping attempt on June 5th2007 by militant in Al-Saidia,BaghdadKarim Abdullah Salman Musudni shot in the mouth on June11th2007 in Al-Aalmel district,BaghdadResidence of Sheikh Haitham Saleem Shahir attacked by gun men at 2:00 pm exploding maindoor looting contents and belong and steeling car, June 2nd2007Mandaeans worship place (Mandi) in Meysan province has received attack by shot gun whilecarrying out Baptism ceremony on Sunday July 15th2007 in which Nedham Krady injuredtogether with Saif Lateef SalihKamil Aufy Mashkoor and 6 member of his family has been evicted by force from their home inAl-Doora district, BaghdadEmad Matrood Sareea and family has been evicted from their home in Al-Doora district,BaghdadSaeed Gahreeb Saahi and family has been evicted by force from their home in Al-Doora district,Baghdad beside two shops one car mechanics and the other is vehicles accessoriesMortar landed on residence of Faheem Salim Sarhan Al- Khamisi, Al-Bayaa district, BaghdadTwo Mandaean’s houses has been occupied by force in Al-Aameria, Baghdad in which manyhistoric religious books been confiscated one of which was original copy of the Kinsa, theMandaeans holly bookZiad Jabbar Al-Sabti a well known figure in Basra attacked, robbed, assaulted and beaten upwhile was going to work in January 2008Mu’taz Sharqi Uthman Badi injured in Basra on March 2008, his family couldn’t take him tohospital because of security circumstancesNajat Abid Gate’a received threat in March 2008 in Baghdad so she left with her orphan childrenand her brother together with his family to parent’s house in KutSami Suwadi Sunaiher al-Zuhairy shot in the left leg in Al-Jewader district, Baghdad on March26th2008Family of Abid Gate’a Muhana received threat to leave their house in KutMoayad Abid Gate’a born 1965 injured and survived a mortar attack to parent’s house in Kut onMarch 29th2008. His wife Enas and 8 other members of the family died in the attackFareed Abid Al- Emam shot in the stomach on April 6th2008 in Al-Sader district, BaghdadSalah Khalaf Mutar Al-Zuhairy house had a rocket attack in Jamela district, Baghdad in April2008Abid Sahan Zghair shot 3 times on April 14th2008 in Abo-Disheer, Baghdad on his way homeby the American troops, had a surgery to remove two, third still in right shoulderHamdia Matar Burhan Hamad (Mrs) shot in the left hand on April 14th2008 in Jameela district,BaghdadAdel Naeem Salih Jabur shot in right foot on April 15th2008 in Al-Sader district, Baghdad, had asurgery to remove bulletAwda Jery Tamool had shrapnel wound when the house opposite bombed on April 30th2008 inAl-Sader district, BaghdadSalah Khalaf house suffer air missile attack on April 13th2008 in Al-Sader district, Baghdad, nobody was home at the time of the incidentEkhlas Shaker Jowher (Mrs) shot in the stomach in Al-Shurta district, Baghdad and had to gothrough major surgery in Al-Yarmook hospitalLara daughter to Saeed Ghareeb Al-Khafagi escape kidnapping attempt on May 13th2008 in Al-Saidia, Baghdad after her father defended her which made the kidnappers to attack him, beatenhim hard causing 3 broken bones to his hand.Sabah Kamil Muhyee suffer a military attack on June 19th2008 in Al-Hurria district, Baghdadcausing injuries to tummy, broken hand and shrapnel to the headSabah is a brother to Husham killed in September 07 and Cousin to Aatif Jameel Muhyee killedin August 2007 (refer to MHRG report issued March 2008)Waleed Ghazi Shaaty survived an assassination attempt on August 6th2008 by militant in Al-Sader district, Baghdad causing skull’s fracture, temporary loss of memory and internal bleedingThreats sent to Mandaean’s families for taking part in a joint British American film made inJordan talking about the military battle of Haditha
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1.Nassim B. Abdul Kareem2.Aehem B. Abdul Kareem3.Jabbar Kokaz Badr4.Khadeja K. Laoas5.Fryal L. Mkalf6.Talal B. AsieOne of the Mandaeans already survived an assassination attempt involves a speeding car inJordanTalib Hammadi Ayesh Al-Khamisi, injured on October 12 2008 by explosion in Al-Bayaadistrict, Baghdad while shoppingLate Mr. Haleem Shathur’s family forced to evacuate their house on October 15th2008 at Al-Ameen district, Baghdad after militants attacked their house at 4:00 am forcing them to evacuatenot allowing them to take any personnel documentations or belonged and set the house on fire.The family consist of 70 yrs old Mum Aneesa J. Arar, daughter and sonAsa’d Hani and Feras Shaker Ghlaem survived an assassination attempt on April 19th2009 afterattack using guns with silencers in Al-Toobchy district, BaghdadIn which three other Mandaeans were killedOn April 23rd2009 two explosives detonated front house of victim Haytham Hameed Al-Badriwho has been killed on April 19th2009 together with his Son (refer to of list of killed Mandaean)Mu’een Jasim survived an assassination attempt on May 7th2009 after receiving few gun shots;he has been taken to Al-Yarmook hospital in critical conditionSarmad Fouad Nasir and Feras Sallom Sheikh Farag injured in car explosion on October 25th2009 in BaghdadResidents of Wajdi Shaheen Bedan, Ghasan Yousif Naseem and Nadhum Ghadeer Hajem hasbeen damaged by the same explosion
Unconfirmed AtrocitiesThe following atrocities was not confirmed to be a hate crime but we are still looking for evidence anddemand investigation1.2.3.4.Salama Hamdi Salih (Mrs) wife to Atshan Khashan killed by car explosion on May 22nd2007 inAl-Aamel district, BaghdadThree Mandaean females kidnapped on January 20th2008 by force using weapons in publicplace with their families around and forcing them to merry Muslim men to convert themRa’ad Farhan Shenan killed on March 19th2008 after 9 months of captivitySabria Wadi Sahi died on April 1st2008 in hospital in unknown circumstances
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Photo evidence of some of the victimsAl-Halali Raad Matar Falih Al-Othmani, killed on 10-10-2006, Al-Suwara, South of Baghdad, killedbecause he was practicing to be a religious leader.
Mr Khalid Akram Muhi 30 yrs, kidnapped, tortured, given three days to announce his conversion to Islamor leave the country.
Dr Nisreen Abdul-lateef, Dentist, Married with two kids. Attacked on August 8th2006 by masked gunmenin her clinic shouting slogans against the infidels. Kicked and beaten then put to the floor to beslaughtered. She was saved by her patients.
Mr Khayri Abdul-Sattar, Jeweller, killed in his shop after he got two letters of threats to leave the area orconvert. Killed on April 2nd2005.
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Mr Zamil Al-Zuhairi, 56 yrs Jeweller. Kidnapped May 8th2005, tortured, refused to change religion. Hepaid ransom. Now suffers sever psychological trauma and living in Syria.
Salwan Salam, Child 10 yrs old. In Dyala area, kidnapped, beaten then burned on different areas of hisbody. Family paid ransom and left Iraq.
Rwan Mukdad Kareem Al-Khamisi, 5 yrs old kidnapped March 13th2004, a piece of her ear was sent to theparents to pay ransom and leave the area. Parents paid $10,000.00 and left Iraq.
Aseel Dhafer 12 yrs Kidnapped on September 28 2004. Kiddnapped, tortured. The kidnappers asked theparents to convert, pay ransom and leave the country. Family paid $15000.00 and left Iraq.
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Miss Hifa Jabar MijmanShe lost one eye in an attack by thugs. She was attacked because she did not put on a hijab and refused toobey their orders.
Mr Imad Aziz KhisafTorture victim was kidnapped tortured and paid ransom before he could escape to Syria.
Mrs Ansam Mubarak Muhalhel kidnapped together with her 11 yrs old Son Saeed Mazin Saeed.